Carbon dioxide concentration and atmospheric flux in the Hudson River
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
We made direct measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 (PCO 2) in the tidal-freshwater portion of the Hudson River Estuary over a 3.5-yr period. At all times the Hudson was supersaturated in CO2 with respect to the atmosphere. PCO 2 in surface water averaged 1125±403 (SD) μatm while the atmosphere averaged 416±68 μatm. Weekly samples at a single, mid-river station showed a pronounced and reproducible seasonal cycle with highest values (∼2000 μatm) in mid-to-late summer, and lowest values (∼500 μatm) generally in late winter. Samples taken along the length of the 190-km section of river showed a general decline in CO2 from north to south. This decline was most pronounced in summer and very slight in spring. Diel and vertical variation were small relative to the standing stock of CO2. Over six diel cycles, all taken during the algal growing season, the mean range was 300±114 μatm. CO2 tended to increase slightly with depth, but the gradient was small, about 0.5 μmol m−1, or an increase of 190 μatm from top to within 1 m of the bottom. For a large subset of the samples (n=452) we also calculated CO2 from measurements of pH and total DIC. Calculated and measured values of CO2 were in reasonably good agreement and a regression of calculated versus measured values had a slope of 0.85±0.04 and an r2 of 0.60. Combining our measurements with recent experimental studies of gas exchange in the Hudson, we estimate that the Hudson releases CO2 at a rate of 70–162 g C m−2 yr−1 from the river to the atmosphere.
- Butler, J. N. 1991. Carbon Dioxide Equilibria and Their Applications. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan.
- Caraco, N. F., J. J. Cole, P. A. Raymond, D. L. Strayer, M. L. Pace, S. E. G. Findlay, andD. T. Fischer. 1997. Zebra mussel invasion in a large turbid river: Phytoplankton response to increased grazing.Ecology 78:588–602.
- Clark, J. F., R. Wanninkhof, P. Schlosser, andH. J. Simpson. 1994. Gas exchange rates in the tidal Hudson river using a dual tracer technique.Tellus 46B:264–285.
- Cole, J. J., N. F. Caraco, G. W. Kling, andT. K. Kratz. 1994. Carbon dioxide supersaturation in the surface waters of lakes.Science 265:1568–1570. CrossRef
- Cole, J. J., N. F. Caraco, andB. Peierls. 1992. Can phytoplankton maintain a positive carbon balance in a turbid, freshwater, tidal estuary?Limnology and Oceanography 37:1608–1617.
- Cummins, K. W., C. E. Cushing, andG. W. Minshall. 1995. Introduction: An overview of stream ecosystems, p. 1–8.In C. E. Cushing, K. W. Cummings, and G. W. Minshall (eds.), River and Stream Ecosystems. Eslevier, New York.
- Depetris, P. J. andS. Kempe. 1993. Carbon dynamics and sources for the Parana River.Limnology and Oceanography 38: 382–396.
- Emerson, S. 1975. Gas exchange rates in Canadian Shield lakes.Limnology and Oceanography 20:754–761.
- Findlay, S., M. L. Pace, D. Lints, J. Cole, N. Caraco, andB. Peierls. 1991. Weak coupling of bacterial and algal production in a heterotrophic ecosystem: The Hudson River estuary.Limnology and Oceanography 36:268–278.
- Gladden, J. B., F. R. Cantelmo, J. M. Croom, andR. Shapot. 1988. Evaluation of the Hudson River Ecosystem in relation to the dynamics of fish populations.American Fisheries Society Monographs 4:37–52.
- Herczeg, A. L., W. S. Broecker, R. F. Anderson, S. L. Schiff, andD. W. Schindler. 1985. A new method for monitoring temporal trends in the acidity of fresh waters.Nature 315:133–135. CrossRef
- Herczeg, A. L. andR. H. Hesslein. 1984. Determination of hydrogen ion concentration in softwater lakes using carbon dioxide equilibria.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48:837–845. CrossRef
- Hesslein, R. H., J. W. M. Rudd, C. Kelly, P. Ramlal, andK. A. Hallard. 1991. Carbon dioxide pressure in surface waters of Canadian Lakes, p. 413–431.In S. C. Wilhelms and J. S. Gulliver (eds.), Air Water Mass Transfer. American Society of Civil Engineers, Boston, Massachusetts.
- Holm-Hansen, O. andB. Riemann. 1978. Chlorophylla determinations: Improvements in methodology.Oikos 30:439–447. CrossRef
- Howarth, R. W., R. Marino, R. Garritt, andD. Sherman. 1992. Ecosystem respiration and organic carbon processing in a large, tidally influenced river: The Hudson River.Biogeochemistry 16:83–102. CrossRef
- Howarth, R. W., R. Schneider, andD. Swaney. 1996. Metabolism and organic carbon fluxes in the tidal freshwater Hudson River.Estuaries 19:848–865. CrossRef
- Kempe, S. 1982. Long-term records of CO2 pressure fluctuations in fresh waters.Mitteilungen Aus Dem Geologisch-Paleontologischen Institut Der Universitaet Hamburg 52:91–332.
- Kling, G. W., G. W. Kipphut, andM. C. Miller. 1992. The flux of CO2 and CH4 from lakes and rivers in arctic Alaska.Hydrobiologia 240:23–36.
- Marino, R. andR. W. Howarth. 1993. Atmospheric oxygen exchange in the Hudson River: Dome measurements and comparison with other natural waters.Estuaries 16:433–445. CrossRef
- McConnaughey, T. A., J. W. LaBaugh, D. O. Rosenberry, R. G. Striegl, M. M. Reddy, P. F. Schuster, andV. Carter. 1994. Carbon budget for a groundwater-fed lake: Calcification supports summer photosynthesis.Limnology and Oceanography 39: 1319–1332.
- Quay, P. D., S. R. Emerson, B. M. Quay, andA. H. Devol. 1986. The carbon cycle for Lake Washington.Limnology and Oceanography 31:596–611. CrossRef
- Quay, P. D., D. O. Wilbur, J. E. Richey, A. H. Devol, R. Benner, andB. R. Forsberg. 1995. The16O∶18O of dissolved oxygen in rivers and lakes in the Amazon Basin: Determining the ratio of respiration to photosynthesis rates in fresh waters.Limnology and Oceanography 40:718–729.
- Schecher, W. D. andD. C. McAvoy. 1991. MINEQL: A chemical equilibrium program for personal computers. User’s Manual Version 2.1. Procter and Gamble Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- Schindler, D. W., G. J. Brunskill, S. Emerson, W. S. Broecker, andT. Peng. 1972. Atmospheric carbon dioxide: Its role in maintaining phytoplankton standing stocks.Science 177:1192–1194. CrossRef
- Sellers, P., R. H. Hesslein, andC. A. Kelly. 1995. Continuous measurement of CO2 for estimation of air-water fluxes in lakes: An in situ technique.Limnology and Oceanography 40: 575–581. CrossRef
- Stainton, M. P. 1973. A syringe gas-stripping procedure for gas-chromatographic determination of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon in fresh water and carbonates in sediments.Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30:1441–1445.
- Stauffer, R. E. 1990. Electrode pH error, seasonal epilimnetic pCO2, and the recent acidification of the Maine lakes.Water Air and Soil Pollution 50:123–148. CrossRef
- Vannote, R. L., G. W. Minshall, K. W. Cummins, J. R. Sedell, andC. E. Cushing. 1980. The river continuum concept.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37:130–137. CrossRef
- Wanninkhof, R. 1992. Relationship between gas exchange and wind speed over the ocean.Journal of Geophysical Research 97: 7373–7382. CrossRef
- Wanninkhof, R., J. Ledwell, W. S. Broecker, andM. Hamilton. 1987. Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California.Journal of Geophysical Research 92:14567–14580. CrossRef
- Weiss, R. F. 1974. Carbon dioxide in water and seawater: The solubility of a non ideal gas.Marine Chemistry 2:203–215. CrossRef
- Carbon dioxide concentration and atmospheric flux in the Hudson River
Volume 20, Issue 2 , pp 381-390
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Additional Links