β-Endorphin Response to Exercise
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- Goldfarb, A.H. & Jamurtas, A.Z. Sports Med (1997) 24: 8. doi:10.2165/00007256-199724010-00002
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β-Endorphin, a 31-amino-acid peptide, is primarily synthesised in the anterior pituitary gland and cleaved from pro-opiomelanocortin, its larger precursor molecule. β-Endorphin can be released into the circulation from the pituitary gland or can project into areas of the brain through nerve fibres. Exercise of sufficient intensity and duration has been demonstrated to increase circulating β-endorphin levels. Previous reviews have presented the background of opioids and exercise and discussed the changes in β-endorphin levels in response to aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The present review is to update the response of β-endorphin to exercise. This review suggests that exercise-induced β-endorphin alterations are related to type of exercise and special populations tested, and may differ in individuals with health problems. Additionally, some of the possible mechanisms which may induce β-endorphin changes in the circulation include analgesia, lactate or base excess, and metabolic factors. Based on the type of exercise, different mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of β-endorphin release during exercise.