Negative Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs on Mood in Patients with Epilepsy
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With the introduction of several new antiepileptic drugs into clinical practice, renewed attention has been focussed on treatment-emergent adverse effects, including mood disorders. There are several possible causes of psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy, including antiepileptic drugs, and it is often difficult to determine whether psychopathological manifestations, especially depressive symptoms, are due to drug therapy or to multiple other factors. Assessment of the negative effects of antiepileptic drugs on mood should always consider all potential factors. Case series, audits and open observational studies can identify psychopathological features, case-control studies are useful for identifying the endophenotypes of patients at risk of adverse effects on mood, and controlled clinical trials give good estimates of incidence of such effects, adjusted for the spontaneous occurrence of symptoms.
The barbiturates, vigabatrin and topiramate show greater associations with the occurrence of depressive symptoms than other antiepileptic drugs, presenting in up to 10% of all patients, but even more so in susceptible patients. Data on zonisamide are scarce but it seems that mood disorders may occur in approximately 7% of patients who are receiving high dosages of this drug. In most cases, the use of monotherapy, with slow titration schedules, can significantly reduce the incidence of mood disorders. Tiagabine, levetiracetam and felbamate present an intermediate risk, with prevalence of depression of about 4% or lower. Phenytoin, ethosuximide, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, gabapentin, sodium valproate, pregabalin and lamotrigine are all associated with low risks for depression (<1%), and several of these antiepileptic drugs seem to have a positive effect on mood. Antiepileptic drugs can negatively affect mood and behaviour by different mechanisms: potentiation of GABA neurotransmission, folate deficiency, pharmacodynamic interactions with other antiepileptic drugs in polytherapy regimens, forced normalisation.
Individuals with a personal or family history of depression should be carefully followed after initiation of therapy with a new antiepileptic drug, especially if structural brain abnormalities such as hippocampal sclerosis are present.
- Negative Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs on Mood in Patients with Epilepsy
Volume 30, Issue 7 , pp 555-567
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- 1. Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, Section of Neurology, Amedeo Avogadro University, Novara, Italy
- 2. Department of Psychiatry, Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Biotechnologies, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
- 3. Department of Clinical & Experimental Epilepsy, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
- 4. Epilepsy Institute of the Netherlands, Heemstede, The Netherlands