Sports Medicine

, Volume 39, Issue 9, pp 723–741

Competitive Elite Golf

A Review of the Relationships between Playing Results, Technique and Physique
Review Article Competitive Elite Golf

DOI: 10.2165/11315200-000000000-00000

Cite this article as:
Hellström, J. Sports Med (2009) 39: 723. doi:10.2165/11315200-000000000-00000


Elite golfers commonly use fitness and technical training to become more competitive. The aim of this paper was to review the literature regarding the relationships between elite golfers’ playing results, technique and physique. The competitive outcome is a direct function of the score. The three golf statistical measures that show the strongest correlations to scoring average are greens in regulation (GIR), scrambling, and putts per GIR. However, more detailed game statistics are needed where the distances to the targets are known before and after the strokes. Players affect ball displacement by controlling clubhead velocity and clubface angle during club and ball impact. X-factor studies have produced ambiguous results, possibly caused by different definitions of upper torso, rotation and top of backswing. Higher clubhead speed is generally associated with larger spinal rotation and shoulder girdle protraction at the top of the backswing. It is also associated with higher ground reaction forces and torques, a bottom-up and sequential increase of body segment angular velocities, a rapid increase of spinal rotation and a late adduction of the wrists during the downswing. Players can increase the clubhead speed generated by a swinging motion by actively adding a force couple. Wrist, elbow and shoulder force couple strategies should be differentiated when investigating the technique. Physical parameters such as anthropometrics, strength and flexibility are associated with skill level and clubhead speed. Current studies have investigated the linear correlation between arm and shaft lengths and clubhead speed, but a quadratic relationship may be stronger due to changes in moment of inertia. Fitness training can increase and perhaps decrease the clubhead speed and striking distance, depending on training methods and the player’s fitness and level of skill. Future studies may focus on individual training needs and the relationship between physique, execution and its relation to accuracy of impact and ball displacement.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Health and Medical Sciences, örebro UniversityörebroSweden
  2. 2.Björnvägen 8aLidingöSweden