High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 191–200

Hypertension and Cerebrovascular Dysfunction

Acute and Chronic Brain Pathological Alterations
Review Article

DOI: 10.2165/11311950-000000000-00000

Cite this article as:
Carnevale, D. & Lembo, G. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev (2010) 17: 191. doi:10.2165/11311950-000000000-00000

Abstract

Hypertension is one of the main risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases. This article focuses on the pathophysiological mechanisms recruited by hypertension, altering the normal functioning of the cerebral circulation and conditioning the onset of acute and chronic brain injury. In particular, hypertension favours acute ischaemic and haemorragic events and, more insidiously, chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, vascular cells, in response to haemodynamic insults, signal to neurons and astrocytes that recruit microglia, which, when activated, secrete several proinflammatory cytokines. The various neuroinflammatory milieu involved in the different clinical manifestations of hypertension-induced cerebrovascular events, contribute in different ways to the onset and progression of brain pathology.

Keywords

hypertensioncerebrovascular diseasestrokedementiainflammation

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AngiocardioneurologyIRCCS NeuromedPozzilli, IserniaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Medicine, “Sapienza”University of RomeRomeItaly