, Volume 32, Issue 6, pp 361-371
Date: 13 Dec 2012

Intranasal Ketorolac

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Abstract

Ketorolac is a member of the pyrrolo-pyrrole group of NSAIDs, and has been available in several formulations for some time, for the treatment of pain. Intranasal ketorolac has recently become available.

Intranasal ketorolac was effective in providing short-term relief from postoperative pain in four well designed, phase II or III trials.

In the two phase III trials, a single intranasal dose of ketorolac 31.5 mg, with or without backup analgesia, was associated with significantly higher 6-hour summed post-treatment pain intensity difference scores (primary endpoint) than placebo in adult patients with acute pain following major surgery, including abdominal and orthopaedic surgery.

Intranasal ketorolac 31.5 mg up to three or four times daily for ≤5 days also had an opioid-sparing effect in these trials, with significantly less morphine used among ketorolac than among placebo recipients over the first 48 hours of treatment. Moreover, a greater proportion of ketorolac recipients experienced analgesia onset within 1 and 1.5 hours but not 2 hours than placebo recipients, indicating a more rapid onset with intranasal ketorolac.

In adult patients with acute pain following major surgery, intranasal ketorolac 31.5mg three or four times daily for ≤5 days was generally well tolerated. Most adverse events in clinical trials were considered to be of mild severity and transient in nature, with those in the phase III trials generally being characteristic of common events following major abdominal surgery and morphine administration.