, Volume 1, Issue 6, pp 455-466
Date: 20 Aug 2012

Hypertriglyceridemia

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Abstract

Accumulating evidence indicates that hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This increased risk is probably substantially mediated through the metabolic interrelationships between serum triglyceride (TG) levels and other risk factors, such as the atherogenic lipid profile (low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and elevated small dense low density lipoprotein levels), insulin resistance, a prothrombotic propensity and low grade systemic inflammation. TG-lowering strategy in patients with HTG encompasses dietary modification and pharmacological agents, such as fibric acid derivatives, fish-oil and hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, which have, besides their known effects on the atherogenic lipid profile, beneficial effects on other determinants of cardiovascular disease. However, in spite of data from trials investigating fibric acid derivative-induced reduction in coronary events in patients with distinct types of hyperlipidemia, no specific trials have been performed that investigated this risk reduction in patients with HTG, in whom other cardiovascular risk factors are clustered as well. Small-scale studies on determinants of cardiovascular disease in patients with HTG and post-hoc analyses of the Helsinki Heart, Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Intervention Trial and Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention trials in patients with high serum TG levels suggest a drug-induced reduction in cardiovascular events. However, a specific trial should be conducted to investigate the effects of lipid-lowering therapy on clinical end-points in patients with HTG of defined types.