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- Ma, J., Rayner, C.K., Jones, K.L. et al. Drugs (2009) 69: 971. doi:10.2165/00003495-200969080-00003
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Gastric emptying is frequently abnormal in patients with long-standing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Symptoms commonly associated with disordered gastric emptying include nausea, vomiting, bloating and epigastric pain, while patients are also at risk of malnutrition, weight loss, impaired drug absorption, disordered glycaemic control and poor quality of life. Although often attributed to the presence of irreversible autonomic neuropathy, acute hyperglycaemia represents a potentially reversible cause of gastric dysfunction in diabetes. Scintigraphy represents the gold standard for measuring gastric emptying. The management of diabetic gastroparesis is less than optimal, partly because the pathogenesis has not been clearly defined. Treatment approaches include dietary modification and optimization of glycaemia, and the use of prokinetic drugs, while novel therapies such as gastric electrical stimulation are the subject of ongoing investigation.