, Volume 65, Issue 11, pp 1451-1460
Date: 17 Sep 2012

Drugs in Development for Hepatitis B

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

The management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has improved dramatically over the last decade with the development of new drugs such as lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil, in addition to the now standard interferon (IFN)-α therapy. These new drugs can achieve a significant reduction or inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA during therapy. However, in the majority of patients, particularly in those who are hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative, the sustained off-therapy suppression of HBV DNA is rare. For this reason, several new antiviral and immunomodulatory agents are currently being evaluated.

Among the immunomodulatory agents, pegylated IFNα (peginterferon-α) has been shown to be more effective for HBeAg-positive CHB than either lamivudine or standard IFNα monotherapy, particularly in those patients infected by HBV genotypes A and B. The new antivirals entecavir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and telbivudine exhibit a more potent viral inhibitory effect than the currently approved drugs (IFNs, lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil). However, the emergence of viral resistance has been witnessed and this could be one of the major limitations to the clinical use of these new drugs, particularly during prolonged therapy.

In HBeAg-negative patients it is more and more common for oral antiviral therapy to be administered for prolonged periods, as the sustained off-therapy response rates of short-term therapy are very low. Different studies are currently evaluating combination therapy, using lamivudine with adefovir dipivoxil or peginterferon-α with lamivudine; the preliminary results show virological responses no better than those achieved by monotherapy. However, as combination therapy is associated with a low likelihood of developing HBV drug resistance, this could result in a higher virological response during prolonged therapy.

In the near future the most realistic therapeutic option for the majority of patients with CHB will be long-term use of these new, more potent antiviral drugs, if they can achieve good safety profiles while maintaining low resistance rates at affordable costs.