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- Holte, K. & Kehlet, H. Drugs (2002) 62: 2603. doi:10.2165/00003495-200262180-00004
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The pathogenesis of postoperative ileus (PI) is multifactorial, and includes activation of inhibitory reflexes, inflammatory mediators and opioids (endogenous and exogenous). Accordingly, various strategies have been employed to prevent PI. As single-modality treatment, continuous postoperative epidural analgesia including local anaesthetics has been most effective in the prevention of PI. Choice of anaesthetic technique has no major impact on PI. Minimally invasive surgery reduces PI, in accordance with the sustained reduction in the inflammatory responses, while the effects of early institution of oral nutrition on PI per se are minor. Several pharmacological agents have been employed to resolve PI (propranolol, dihydroergotamine, neostigmine, erythromycin, cisapride, meto-clopramide, cholecystokinin, ceruletide and vasopressin), most with either limited effect or limited applicability because of adverse effects. The development of new peripheral selective opioid antagonists is promising and has been demonstrated to shorten PI significantly. A multi-modal rehabilitation programme including continuous epidural analgesia with local anaesthetics, enforced nutrition and mobilisation may reduce PI to 1–2 days after colonic surgery.