, Volume 61, Issue 2, pp 237-251
Date: 05 Jan 2013

Treatment Options for Sleep Apnoea

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Abstract

Sleep apnoea (SA) is a common sleep disorder affecting 4 to 25% of the adult population. The most common form, obstructive SA, is characterised by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep associated with sleep disruption and hypoxaemia. There is increasing evidence that SA leads to impaired vigilance, quality of life, driving accidents and probably represents a vascular disease risk factor. Currently, the most effective treatments are aimed at increasing upper airway space by either air pressure [(continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)], upper airway surgery or oral appliances. CPAP is the main treatment modality for moderate to severe SA but noncompliance approaches 50% in clinic populations. A number of pharmacological agents have been used in SA but at this stage, none are indicated in moderate to severe SA.