Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Fexofenadine, the active metabolite of terfenadine, is a selective histamine Hi receptor antagonist that does not cross the blood brain barrier and appears to display some anti-inflammatory properties. Fexofenadine is rapidly absorbed (onset of relief ≈2 hours) and has a long duration of action, making it suitable for once daily administration.
Clinical trials (≤2 weeks’ duration) have shown fexofenadine 60mg twice daily and 120mg once daily to be as effective as loratadine 10mg once daily, and fexofenadine 120mg once daily to be as effective as cetirizine 10mg once daily in the overall reduction of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis. When given in combination, fexofenadine and extended release pseudoephedrine had complementary activity. Fexofenadine was effective in relieving the symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhoea, itchy nose, palate or throat, and itchy, watery, red eyes in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. There were often small improvements in nasal congestion that were further improved by pseudoephedrine. Fexofenadine produced greater improvements in quality of life than loratadine to an extent considered to be clinically meaningful, and enhanced patients’ qualty of life when added to pseudoephedrine treatment. Although no comparative data with other H1 antagonists exist, fexofenadine 180mg once daily was effective in reducing the symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria for up to 6 weeks.
Fexofenadine was well tolerated in clinical trials in adults and adolescents and the adverse event profile was similar to placebo in all studies. The most frequently reported adverse event during fexofenadine treatment was headache, which occurred with a similar incidence to that seen in placebo recipients. Fexofenadine does not inhibit cardiac K+ channels and is not associated with prolongation of the corrected QT interval. When given alone or in combination with erythromycin or ketoconazole, it was not associated with any adverse cardiac events in clinical trials. As it does not cross the blood brain barrier, fexofenadine is free of the sedative effects associated with first generation antihistamines, even at dosages of up to 240 mg/day.
Conclusions: fexofenadine is clinically effective in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria for which it is a suitable option for first-line therapy. Comparative data suggest that fexofenadine is as effective as loratadine or cetirizine in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. In those with excessive nasal congestion the combination of fexofenadine plus pseudoephedrine may be useful. In clinical trials fexofenadine is not associated with adverse cardiac or cognitive/psychomotor effects.
Fexofenadine is a selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Single doses <180mg suppressed histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions to a similar extent to loratadine 10mg and terfenadine ≤180mg; higher doses of fexofenadine and terfenadine were more effective than lower doses. However, the onset of action of fexofenadine (≤2 hours) was faster than that of loratadine.
In vitro, concentrations of the drug close to those achieved at clinical dosages have been shown to attenuate the release of many inflammatory mediators, in-cluding cytokines, leukotrienes and adhesion molecules, from a variety of cell types.
Dosages ≤120mg rapidly (after a median of 60 min) relieved allergen-induced symptoms in ragweed sensitive volunteers in a randomised, double-blind study. In addition, the drug was as effective as terfenadine at relieving nasal pruritus and congestion, and better at controlling rhinorrhoea and sneezing after nasal provocation tests with allergen in patients with grass pollen-induced rhinitis. A higher allergen concentration was required to provoke a response after fexofenadine than terfenadine.
In animal models of corrected QT interval (QTC) prolongation, fexofenadine did not prolong QTcor decrease heart rate, unlike terfenadine, astemizole and ebastine. Indeed, fexofenadine has a relatively weak affinity for cloned human cardiac potassium channels compared with other antihistamines.
During development, fexofenadine was shown to have no significant effects on heart rate, PR interval, QRS width, QT interval or QTc and to cause no adverse cardiovascular events at single doses up to 800mg and multiple dosages up to 690 mg/day.
Fexofenadine is rapidly absorbed, reaching peak plasma concentrations approximately 1.0 to 1.5 hours after single doses of oral solution (20 to 240mg) and has a long duration of action (t½ ≈14 hours). It does not appear to cross the blood brain barrier. There is minimal systemic metabolism (≤5%) or accumulation. The drug is predominately excreted in the faeces as unchanged drug. The pharmacokinetic properties of fexofenadine are similar after single and multiple doses and are dose proportional over a range of 10 to 800mg.
Elimination of fexofenadine is decreased in patients with renal impairment. However, mild to severe hepatic impairment did not appreciably affect its pharmacokinetic properties.
Coadministration of erythromycin or ketoconazole resulted in increases in steady state fexofenadine plasma concentrations, but these remained within the range achieved in clinical trials of the drug and QTc intervals were unchanged.
In patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis, 2 weeks’ treatment with fexofenadine once (120 or 180mg) or twice (40 to 240mg) daily produced significantly (p < 0.01) greater improvements in total symptom score (TSS) than placebo. The effects of the drug persisted for up to 24 hours. Nasal congestion, which was not included in the TSS, was generally reduced by dosages ≥120 mg/day. With respect to improving TSS, fexofenadine 60mg twice daily and 120mg once daily was as effective as loratadine 10mg once daily and fexofenadine 120mg once daily was as effective as cetirizine 10mg once daily after 7 to 14 days’ treatment (p < 0.05 vs placebo for all). Individual symptom scores (including sneezing, rhinorrhoea, itchy nose, palate or throat, and itchy, watery, red eyes) were similarly improved by fexofenadine and loratadine, except itchy, watery, red eyes, which only significantly improved with fexofenadine.
Fexofenadine and pseudoephedrine had complementary activity in patients with ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Importantly, nasal congestion scores improved more with the combination than with fexofenadine alone.
In patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria, fexofenadine dosages ≥40 mg/day for 4 or 6 weeks produced improvements in TSS compared with placebo but higher dosages tended to have greater efficacy.
Fexofenadine improved quality of life and decreased work and activity impairment in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. In patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis, the drug produced greater improvements in quality of life than loratadine to an extent considered to be clinically meaningful, and enhanced patients’ quality of life when added to pseudoephedrine treatment.
Fexofenadine (≤240 mg/day for up to 6 weeks and ≤480 mg/day for up to 4 weeks) was well tolerated in clinical trials in adults and adolescents (aged ≥12 years) with seasonal allergic rhinitis or chronic idiopathic urticaria, and in children aged 6 to 11 years with seasonal allergic rhinitis. The drug was also well tolerated in 2 long term trials with dosages of 60mg twice daily for 6 months and 240mg once daily for 12 months. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events associated with fexofenadine was similar to those of placebo, loratadine and cetirizine, and lower than that associated with pseudoephedrine. Headache was the most frequently reported adverse event during treatment, which occurred with a similar incidence to that seen in placebo recipients.
No adverse electrocardiographic events or episodes of torsades de pointes occurred during randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials with fexofenadine. In short and long term (2-week to 12-month) studies with dosages ≤240mg twice daily, there were no significant increases in QTc compared with placebo. In addition, there was no increase in QTc when the drug was administered in combination with erythromycin or ketoconazole.
In comparison with placebo, fexofenadine did not increase the incidence of sedation or drowsiness and did not impair cognitive or psychomotor function, even at dosages exceeding those recommended (up to 240 mg/day).
Dosage and Administration
In the US, the recommended dosage of fexofenadine for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis is 60mg twice daily, alone or in combination with pseudoephedrine 120mg, for adults and adolescents aged >12 years. In the UK, the recommended dosage of fexofenadine for relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis is 120mg once daily and the recommended dosage for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria is 180mg once daily. For patients with decreased renal function or those on haemodialysis a lower starting dosage of 60mg once daily is recommended in the US, but not in the UK. Dosage adjustment is not necessary in elderly patients or those with hepatic impairment.
- Howarth PH. ABC of allergies: pathogenic mechanisms: a ra-tional basis for treatment. BMJ 1998 Mar 7; 316: 758–61 CrossRef
- Hadley JA. Evaluation and management of allergic rhinitis. Med Clin North Am 1999; 83(1): 13–25 CrossRef
- Tharp MD. Chronic urticaria: pathophysiology and treatment approaches. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996 Dec; 98: 325–30 CrossRef
- Dykewicz MS, Fineman S, Skoner DP, et al. Diagnosis and management of rhinitis: complete guidelines of the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters in Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998 Nov; 51 (Pt 2): 478–518 CrossRef
- The impact of allergic rhinitis on quality of life and other airway diseases: summary of a European conference. Allergy 1998; 53 (41 Suppl.): 3–30
- O’Donnell BF, Lawlor F. Chronic urticaria: practical recommendations for management. Clin Immunother 1996 Nov; 6: 341–51 CrossRef
- Kennedy MS. Evaluation of chronic eczema and urticaria and angioedema. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 1999; 19(1): 19–33 CrossRef
- Kwong KY, Maalouf N, Jones CA. Urticaria and angioedema: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Pediatr Ann 1998; 27(11): 719–24
- Handley DA, Magnetti A, Higgins AJ. Therapeutic advantages of third generation antihistamines. Expert Opin Invest Drug 1998 Jul; 7: 1045–54 CrossRef
- Markham A, Wagstaff AJ. Fexofenadine. Drugs 1998 Feb; 55: 269–74 CrossRef
- Hey JA, del Prado M, Sherwood J, et al. Comparative analysis of the cardiotoxicity proclivities of second generation antihistamines in an experimental model predictive of adverse clinical ECG effects [see comments]. Arzneimittelforschung 1996 Feb; 46: 153–8
- Hoechst Marion Roussel. Fexofenadine prescribing information. Kansas City, Missouri, USA
- Grant JA, Danielson L, Rihoux J-P, et al. A comparison of cetirizine, ebastine, epinastine, fexofenadine, terfenadine, and loratadine versus placebo in suppressing the cutaneous response to histamine. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999; 118: 339–40 CrossRef
- Simons FER, Simons KJ. Clinical pharmacology of new histamine H1 receptor antagonists. Clin Pharmacokinet 1999 May; 36: 329–52 CrossRef
- Monroe EW, Daly AF, Shalhoub RF. Appraisal of the validity of histamine-induced wheal and flare to predict the clinical efficacy of antihistamines. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997 Feb; 99: S798–806 CrossRef
- Simons FER, Simons KJ. Peripheral H1-blockade effect of fexofenadine. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997 Dec; 79: 530–2 CrossRef
- Balcer SL, Baker TW, Bugos CL, et al. Comparison of fexofenadine (F), terfenadine (T), loratadine (L) and placebo (P) in a double-blind crossover trial utilizing a skin test model to examine suppression of histamine-induced wheal and flare [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998 Jan; 101 (Pt2): S243
- Russell T, Burgess R, Donahue R, et al. A comparison of peripheral H1 blockade between single doses of fexofenadine HC1 and terfenadine. Allergy 1999; 54 Suppl. 52: 156
- Harris AG, Iezzoni DG, Hubbell JP. Comparative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic crossover study of Seldane tablets and Allegra capsules [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999 Jan; 103 (Pt 2): S253
- Ballmer-Weber BK, Wüthrich B. Inhibition of histamine or allergen induced wheals by a single dose of cetirizine or fexofenadine [abstract]. Allergy 1998; 53 Suppl. 43: 78
- Paolieri F, Battifora M, Riccio AM, et al. Terfenadine and fexofenadine reduce in vitro ICAM-1 expression on human continuous cell lines. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998; 81(6): 601–7 CrossRef
- Abdelaziz MM, Devalia JL, Khair OA, et al. Effect of fexofenadine on eosinophil-induced changes in epithelial permeability and cytokine release from nasal epithelial cells of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998; 101(3): 410–20 CrossRef
- de Paulis A, Dente V, Onorati AM, et al. Fexofenadine inhibits the release of mediators and IL-4 from human Fc, RI+cells. Allergy 1999; 54 Suppl. 52: 144
- Schierhorn K, Wobst B, Kunkel G. Influence of fexofenadine on inflammatory mediator release in a human nasal mucosa organ culture system. Allergy 1999; 54 Suppl. 52: 57
- Cieslewicz G, Joetham A, Duez C, et al. The influence of fexofenadine on early and late phase reactions [abstract]. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999 Jan; 82: 79
- Hey JA, Kreutner W, Danzig M, et al. Comparative effects of antihistamines in an experimental model of QTc prolongation and on ventricular K+ currents [abstract]. Allergy 1997; 52(37) Suppl.: 208
- Hey JA, del Prado M, Cuss FM, et al. Antihistamine activity, central nervous systm and cardiovascular profiles of histamine H1 antagonists: comparative studies with loratadine, terfenadine and sedating antihistamines in guinea-pigs. Clin Exp Allergy 1995; 25: 974–84 CrossRef
- Pratt C, Brown AM, Rampe D, et al. Cardiovascular safety of fexofendaine HCl. Clin Exp Allergy 1999; 29 Suppl. 3: 212–6 CrossRef
- Rampe D, Wible B, Brown AM, et al. Effects of terfenadine and its metabolites on a delayed rectifier K+ channel cloned from human heart. Mol Pharmacol 1993; 44: 1240–5
- Ciprandi G, Passalacqua G, Caononica GW. Effects of H1 antihistamine on adhesion molecules: a possible rational for long-term treatment. Clin Exp Allergy 1999; 29(3): 49–53
- Halliday DJ, Briscoe MP, Welsh A, et al. Onset of action, efficacy, and safety of a single dose of fexofenadine hydrochloride for ragweed allergy using an environmental exposure unit. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997 Dec; 79: 533–40 CrossRef
- Terrien M-H, Rahm F, Fellrath J-M, et al. Comparison of the effects of terfenadine with fexofenadine on nasal provocation tests with allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999 Jun; 103: 1025–30 CrossRef
- Simons FER, Johnston L, Gu X, et al. Suppression of the early and late cutaneous allergic responses using the H1-receptor antagonist fexofenadine and the cysteinyl leukotrienel-antagonist montelukast. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000; 105 (in press)
- Viskin S. Long QT intervals and torsade de pointes. Lancet 1999; 354(9190): 1625–33 CrossRef
- Woosley RL, Chen Y, Freiman JP, et al. Mechanism of the cardiotoxic actions of terfenadine. JAMA 1993; 26: 1532–6 CrossRef
- Pratt CM, Mason J, Russell T, et al. Cardiovascular safety of fexofenadine HCl. Am J Cardiol 1999 May 15; 83: 1451–4 CrossRef
- Lippert C, Ling J, Brown P, et al. Mass balance and pharmaco-kinetics of fexofenadine HCl in healthy, male volunteers. Hoechst Marion Roussel (Data on file)
- Russell T, Stoltz M, Weir S. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacody-namics, and tolerance of single-and multiple-dose fexofenadine hydrochloride in healthy male volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998 Dec; 64: 612–21 CrossRef
- Robbins DK, Castles MA, Pack DJ, et al. Dose proportionality and comparison of single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine (MDL 16455) and its enantiomers in healthy male volunteers. Biopharm Drug Dispos 1998; 19(7): 455–63 CrossRef
- Stoltz M, Arumugham T, Lippert C, et al. Effect of food on the bioavailability of fexofenadine hydrochloride (MDL 16455A). Biopharm Drug Dispos 1997 Oct; 18: 645–8 CrossRef
- Lippert CL, Rao N, Eller M, et al. Pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine in liver diseased patients. Pharm Res 1996; 13 (9 Suppl.): S431
- Rao N, Weilert DR, Grace MGA, et al. Pharmacokinetics of terfenadine-acid-metabolite, MDL 16,455, in healthy geriatric subjects [abstract]. Pharm Res 1995 Sep; 12 Suppl.: S386
- Simons FE, Bergman JN, Watson WT, et al. The clinical phar-macology of fexofenadine in children. J Allergy Clin Im-munol 1996 Dec; 98 (6 Pt 1): 1062–4 CrossRef
- Russell T, Arumugham T, Eller M, et al. A comparison of MDL 16,455A pharmacokinetics by gender [abstract]. Pharm Res 1995 Sep; 12 Suppl.: S389
- Loi CM, Koup JR, Vassos AB, et al. Effect of troglitazone on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics [abstract]. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999 Feb; 65: 186
- Kaiser H, Harris AG, Capano D, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of the safety and efficacy of loratadine (Claritin), fexofenadine HCl (Allegra), and placebo in the treatment of subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) [abstract]. Allergy 1999; 54 Suppl. 52: 155
- Prenner B, Capano D, Harris AG. The safety and efficacy of loratadine (Claritin) versus fexofenadine HCI (Allegra) in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR): a multicenter crossover comparison with treatment of nonresponders [abstract]. Allergy 1999; 54 Suppl. 52
- van Cauwenberge P, Juniper EF, Meltzer E, et al. Efficacy, safety and quality of life —a comparison between fexofenadine, loratadine, and placebo in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Presented at the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Conference, Nov 1999, Chicago
- Bernstein DI, Schoenwetter WF, Nathan RA, et al. Efficacy and safety of fexofenadine hydrochloride for treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997 Nov; 79: 443–8 CrossRef
- Bronsky EA, Falliers CJ, Kaiser HB, et al. Effectiveness and safety offexofenadine, anew nonsedatingH1-receptorantagonist, in the treatment of Fall allergies. Allergy Asthma Proc 1998 May–Jun; 19: 135–41 CrossRef
- Casale TB, Andrade C, Qu R. Safety and efficacy of once-daily fexofenadine HCl in the treatment of Autumn seasonal aller-gic rhinitis. Allergy Asthma Proc 1999 May–Jun; 20: 193–8 CrossRef
- Sussman GL, Mason J, Compton D, et al. The efficacy and safety of fexofenadine HC1 and pseudoephedrine, alone and in combination, in seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999 Jul; 104: 100–6 CrossRef
- Howarth PH, Stern MA, Roi L, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the efficacy and safety of fexofenadine hydrochloride (120 and 180 mg once daily) and cetirizine in seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104(5): 927–33 CrossRef
- van Cauwenberge P, Juniper EF, Dumas C, et al. Efficacy, safety and quality of life —a comparison between fexofenadine, loratadine, and placebo in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2000 Feb. (in press)
- Cleary MI, Clouse JC, Roht LH, et al. Prescribing patterns of non-sedating antihistamines and daily dose differences in a managed care population. Presented at the American College of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology Conference [abstract no. 71], Nov 1999. Chicago
- Finn AF, Kaplan AP, Fretwell R, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fexofenadine HCl in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104(5): 1071–8 CrossRef
- Paul E, Berth-Jones K, Ortonne J-P, et al. Fexofenadine hydrochloride in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study. J Dermatol Treat 1998 Sep; 9: 143–9 CrossRef
- Juniper EF, Guyatt GH. Development and testing of anew measure of health status for clinical trials in rhinoconjunctivitis. Clin Exp Allergy 1991; 21: 77–83 CrossRef
- Reilly MC, Tanner A, Meltzer EO. Work, classroom and activity impairment instruments: validation studies in allergic rhinitis. Clin Drug Invest 1996; 11(5): 278–88 CrossRef
- Reilly MC, Zbrozek AS, Dukes EM. The validity and reproducibility of a work productivity and activity impairment instrument. PharmacoEconomics 1993; 4(5): 353–65 CrossRef
- Zimmerman LS, De Anda CS, McKenzie DR, et al. Clinical experience with the mini-rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (Mini-RQLQ) in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) patients receiving fexofenadine [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999 Jan; 103 (Pt 2): S251
- Meltzer EO, Casale TB, Nathan RA, et al. Once-daily fexofenadine HCl improves quality of life and reduces work and activity impairment in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999 Jan; 83: 311–7 CrossRef
- Tanner LA, Reilly M, Meltzer EO, et al. Effect of fexofenadine HCl on quality of life and work, classroom, and daily activity impairment in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Am J Managed Care 1999; 5 (4 Suppl.): S235–47
- Thompson A, Finn A, Schoenwetter W. Effect of 60 mg BID fexofenadine HCl on quality of life, work productivity, and regular activity in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria [abstract]. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999 Jan; 82: 122
- Long J, Meltzer EO, Scott-Dawdy K, et al. Safety offexofenadine HCl in children treated for seasonal allergic rhinitis [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999 Jan; 103 (Pt 2): S254
- Mason J, Reynolds R, Rao N. The systemic safety of fexofenadine. Clin Exp Allergy 1999; 29 Suppl. 3: 163–70 CrossRef
- Craig-McFeely PM, Freemantle SL, Pearce GL, et al. Experience of fexofenadine and cardiac side effects in general practice use in England. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1999; 8 Suppl. 2: S108
- Nathan RA, Mason J, Bernstein DI, et al. Long-term tolerability of fexofenadine in healthy volunteers. Clin Drug Invest 1999; 18(4): 317–28 CrossRef
- Rankin AC. Non-sedating antihistamines and cardiac arrhythmia. Lancet 1997; 350(9085): 1115–6 CrossRef
- Nsouli SM. Electrocardiographic effects (ECG) of fexofenadine (FF) in allergic rhinitis patients [abstract]. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998 Jan; 80: 109
- Pinto YM, van Gelder IC, Heeringa M, et al. QT lengthening and life-threatening arrhythmias associated with fexofenadine. Lancet 1999 Mar 20; 353: 980 CrossRef
- Ledford DK, Lockey RF. Allergic rhinitis: Offering relief this season. J-Respir-Dis 1998; 19(8): 647–66
- Hindmarch I, Shamsi Z. Antihistamines: models to assess sedative properties, assessment of sedation, safety and other side-effects. Clin Exp Allergy 1999; Suppl. 3: 133–42.
- Nicholson AN, Stone BM, Turner C, et al. Antihistamines and aircrews: usefulness of fexofenadine. Aviat Space Environ Med 2000; (In press)
- Vermeeren A, O’Hanlon JF. Fexofenadine’s effects, alone and with alcohol, on actual driving and psychomotor performance. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998 Mar; 101: 306–11 CrossRef
- Hindmarch I, Shamsi Z, Stanley N, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of fexofenadine, loratadine and promethazine on cognitive and psychomotor function. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999 Aug; 48: 200–6 CrossRef
- Weiler JM, Bloomfield JR, Layton TA, et al. Effects of fexofenadine, diphenhydramine and alcohol on driving performance in the Iowa Driving Simulator (IDS) [abstract]. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999 Jan; 82: 112
- Fexofenadine hydrochloride. AHFS Drug Information, 1999
- Telfast* 120 & 180. ABPI Compendium of Data Sheets and Summaries of Product Characteristics. Datapharm Publications Ltd., London
- Meltzer EO. Treatment options for the child with allergic rhinitis. Clin Pediatr 1998; 37(1): 1–10 CrossRef
- Bousquet J, Lockey R, Mailing HJ. WHO position paper. Allergen immunotherapy: therapeutic vaccines for allergic diseases. Allergy 1998; 53 (44 Suppl.): 4–42
- Kozma CM, Sadik MK, Watrous ML. Economic outcomes for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. PharmacoEconomics 1996 Jul; 10: 4–13 CrossRef
- LaForce C. Use of nasal steroids in managing allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999 Mar; 103 (Pt 2) Suppl.: S388–394 CrossRef
Volume 59, Issue 2 , pp 301-321
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer International Publishing
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors