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- Noble, S. & Goa, K.L. Drugs (1999) 58: 479. doi:10.2165/00003495-199958030-00010
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▴ Adefovir dipivoxil is an ester prodrug of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor adefovir (PMEA), the prototype compound of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. It has better oral bioavailability than the parent compound.
▴ Adefovir dipivoxil 120mg once daily significantly reduced viral load compared with placebo when added to standard antiretroviral therapy in a 6-month, double-blind study in patients with HIV infection. Viral suppression was maintained during an additional 6-month nonblind extension phase.
▴ The drug was most effective in patients with baseline isolates containing the M184V lamivudine resistance mutation according to data from a virological substudy of a large placebo-controlled trial.
▴ Adefovir dipivoxil 60mg was as effective as 120mg (both once daily) after 20 weeks’ treatment in a randomised double-blind study in antiretroviral-experienced (protease inhibitor-naive) patients.
▴ Viral suppression was generally maintained in patients who developed new reverse transcriptase mutations during adefovir dipivoxil monotherapy or combination therapy for up to 12 months. No clear pattern of particular clinical resistance mutations has emerged.
▴ GI disturbances, hepatic effects and delayed renal abnormalities are the principal adverse events seen with adefovir dipivoxil. Reductions in serum free carnitine levels may occur and coadministration of L-carnitine is recommended.