Clinical Pharmacokinetics

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 143–157

Sex Differences in Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Review Article

DOI: 10.2165/00003088-200948030-00001

Cite this article as:
Soldin, O.P. & Mattison, D.R. Clin Pharmacokinet (2009) 48: 143. doi:10.2165/00003088-200948030-00001


Significant differences that exist between the sexes affect the prevalence, incidence and severity of a broad range of diseases and conditions. Men and women also differ in their response to drug treatment. It is therefore essential to understand these reactions in order to appropriately conduct risk assessment and to design safe and effective treatments. Even from that modest perspective, how and when we use drugs can result in unwanted and unexpected outcomes. This review summarizes the sex-based differences that impact on pharmacokinetics, and includes a general comparison of clinical pharmacology as it applies to men, women and pregnant women. Sex-related or pregnancy-induced changes in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination, when significant, may guide changes in dosage regimen or therapeutic monitoring to increase its effectiveness or reduce potential toxicity. Given those parameters, and our knowledge of sex differences, we can derive essentially all factors necessary for therapeutic optimization.

Since this is a rapidly evolving area, it is essential for the practitioner to review drug prescribing information and recent literature in order to fully understand the impact of these differences on clinical therapeutics.

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Medicine, Oncology and Physiology, Center for the Study of Sex DifferencesGeorgetown University Medical CenterUSA
  2. 2.Obstetrics Pharmacology Research Unit (OPRU) Network, National Institute of Child Health and Human DevelopmentNational Institutes of HealthRockvilleUSA
  3. 3.Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, LL, S-166Georgetown University Medical CenterUSA

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