Clinical Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of Drugs Used in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease
Current research in Parkinson’s disease (PD) focuses on symptomatic therapy and neuroprotective interventions. Drugs that have been used for symptomatic therapy are levodopa, usually combined with a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor, synthetic dopamine receptor agonists, centrally-acting antimuscarinic drugs, amantadine, monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors. Drugs for which there is at least some evidence for neuroprotective effect are certain dopamine agonists, amantadine and MAO-B inhibitors (selegiline).
Levodopa remains the most effective drug for the treatment of PD. Several factors contribute to the complex clinical pharmacokinetics of levodopa: erratic absorption, short half-life, peripheral O-methylation and facilitated transport across the blood-brain barrier. In patients with response fluctuations to levodopa, the concentration-effect curve becomes steeper and shifts to the right compared with patients with stable response. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling can affect decisions regarding therapeutic strategies.
The dopamine agonists include ergot derivatives (bromocriptine, pergolide, lisuride and cabergoline), non-ergoline derivatives (pramipexole, ropinirole and piribedil) and apomorphine. Most dopamine agonists have their specific pharmacological profile. They are used in monotherapy and as an adjunct to levodopa in early and advanced PD.
Few pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data are available regarding centrally acting antimuscarinic drugs. They are characterised by rapid absorption after oral intake, large volume of distribution and low clearance relative to hepatic blood flow, with extensive metabolism.
The mechanism of action of amantadine remains elusive. It is well absorbed and widely distributed. Since elimination is primarily by renal clearance, accumulation of the drug can occur in patients with renal dysfunction and dosage reduction must be envisaged.
The COMT inhibitors entacapone and tolcapone dose-dependently inhibit the formation of the major metabolite of levodopa, 3-O-methyldopa, and improve the bioavailability and reduce the clearance of levodopa without significantly affecting its absorption. They are useful adjuncts to levodopa in patients with end-of-dose fluctuations.
The MAO-B inhibitor selegiline may have a dual effect: reducing the catabolism of dopamine and limiting the formation of neurotoxic free radicals. The pharmacokinetics of selegiline are highly variable; it has low bioavailability and large volume of distribution. The oral clearance is many-fold higher than the hepatic blood flow and the drug is extensively metabolised into several metabolites, some of them being active.
Despite the introduction of several new drugs to the antiparkinsonian armamentarium, no single best treatment exists for an individual patient with PD. Particularly in the advanced stage of the disease, treatment should be individually tailored.