Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Amantadine Hydrochloride
Amantadine is a drug with diverse uses ranging from prevention of influenza A illness to the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease. It is available only in oral formulations from which it is well absorbed and widely distributed, little drug being present in the circulation. Apparent volume of distribution is inversely related to dose over the therapeutic range and accounts in part for a noteworthy logarithmic increase in plasma concentration as a function of dose. Elimination is primarily by renal clearance by both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion.
Amantadine accumulates in patients with renal dysfunction. Hence, doses must be reduced in such patients to avoid toxicity. Interactions with other drugs appear uncommon.
Relationships have been demonstrated between amantadine therapeutic effects and plasma concentrations in different study cohorts, but not in individual patients. Dose schedules have been suggested for individuals in whom amantadine kinetics are different from healthy subjects. However, these schedules are controversial in their choice of target concentrations and in being untested as to predictive value.