Litter accumulation promotes dominance of invasive species of cattails (Typha spp.) in Lake Ontario wetlands
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Wetlands of the Great Lakes region are increasingly dominated by invasive cattails (Typha angustifolia andTypha Xglauca) which form dense stands of live and dead biomass that may reduce plant diversity. We hypothesized that differences in plant litter accumulation explain cattail dominance under certain hydrologic regimes related to wetland hydrogeologic setting. We investigated cattail abundance, litter accumulation, and species density in three bayside wetlands hydrologically connected and three protected wetlands hydrologically isolated from Lake Ontario. Mean litter biomass was higher in bayside wetlands (1.7–2.6 vs. 0.4–1.2 kg/m2) and negatively related to species density (p = 0.004) in both settings. A litter addition experiment demonstrated that fallen litter negatively influenced seedling survival (p = 0.061) and species density (p = 0.024). Decomposition rates accounted only partially for higher overall litter accumulation in bayside wetlands. Growing season water levels in bayside wetlands tracked Lake Ontario levels and showed less variation than protected wetlands. More stable water levels and higher density of standing dead stems in bayside wetlands may limit litter fragmentation, resulting in greater litter accumulation. Thus, anthropogenic and natural factors affecting cattail litter production, fragmentation, and decomposition could influence species diversity in coastal wetlands.
Anderson, J. T. and L. M. Smith. 2002. The effect of flooding regimes on decomposition ofPolygonum pensylvanicum in playa wetlands (Southern Great Plains, USA). Aquatic Botany 74: 97–108.CrossRef
Bailey, K. M. and B. L. Bedford. 2003. Transient geomorphic control of water table and hydraulic head reversals in a coastal freshwater peatland. Wetlands 23: 969–78.CrossRef
Barlöcher, F. and N. R. Biddiscombe. 1996. Geratology and decomposition ofTypha latifolia andLythrum salicaria in a freshwater marsh. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 136: 309–25.
Battle, J. M. and S. W. Golladay. 2001. Hydroperiod influence on breakdown of leaf litter in cypress-gum wetlands. American Midland Naturalist 146: 128–45.CrossRef
Bedford, B. L. 1996. The need to define hydrologic equivalence at the landscape scale for freshwater wetland mitigation. Ecological Applications 6: 57–68.CrossRef
Bedford, B. L., M. R. Walbridge, and A. Aldous. 1999. Patterns in nutrient availability and plant diversity of temperate North American wetlands. Ecology 80: 2151–69.
Berendse, F. 1999. Implications of increased litter production for plant biodiversity. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14: 4–5.CrossRef
Berendse, F., M. Schmitz, and W. Devisser. 1994. Experimental manipulation of succession in heathland ecosystems. Oecologia 100: 38–44.CrossRef
Boers, A. M. and J. B. Zedler. 2008. Stabilized water levels andTypha invasiveness. Wetlands 28: 676–685.CrossRef
Bouchard, V. 2007. Export of organic matter from a coastal freshwater wetland to Lake Erie: an extension of the outwelling hypothesis. Aquatic Ecology 41: 1–7.CrossRef
Brazner, J. C., N. P. Danz, A. S. Trebitz, G. J. Niemi, R. R. Regal, T. Hollenhorst, G. E. Host, E. D. Reavie, T. N. Brown, J. M. Hanowski, C. A. Johnston, L. B. Johnson, R. W. Howe, and J. J. H. Ciborowski. 2007. Responsiveness of Great Lakes wetland indicators to human disturbances at multiple spatial scales: a multi-assemblage assessment. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33 (Special Issue 3): 42–66.CrossRef
Brinson, M. M., A. E. Lugo, and S. Brown. 1981. Primary productivity, decomposition and consumer activity in freshwater wetlands. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 12: 123–61.CrossRef
Davis, C. B. and A. G. van der Valk. 1978. Litter decomposition in prairie glacial marshes. p. 99–113.In R. E. Good, D. F. Whigham, and R. L. Simpson (eds.) Freshwater Wetlands. Academic Press Inc., New York, NY, USA.
Dezozaya, I. Y. B. and J. J. Neiff. 1991. Decomposition and colonization by invertebrates ofTypha latifolia L. litter in Chaco cattail swamp (Argentina). Aquatic Botany 40: 185–93.CrossRef
Facelli, J. M. 1994. Multiple indirect effects of plant litter affect the establishment of woody seedlings in old fields. Ecology 75: 1727–35.CrossRef
Facelli, J. M. and S. T. A. Pickett. 1991. Plant litter — light interception and effects on an old-field plant community. Ecology 72: 1024–31.CrossRef
Foster, B. L., T. L. Dickson, C. A. Murphy, I. S. Karel, and V. H. Smith. 2004. Propagule pools mediate community assembly and diversity-ecosystem regulation along a grassland productivity gradient. Journal of Ecology 92: 435–49.CrossRef
Foster, B. L. and K. L. Gross. 1997. Partitioning the effects of plant biomass and litter onAndropogon gerardi in old-field vegetation. Ecology 78: 2091–2104.
Foster, B. L. and K. L. Gross. 1998. Species richness in a successional grassland: effects of nitrogen enrichment and plant litter. Ecology 79: 2593–2602.CrossRef
Frieswyk, C. B. and J. B. Zedler. 2006. Do seed banks confer resilience to coastal wetlands invaded byTypha Xglauca? Canadian Journal of Botany 84: 1882–93.CrossRef
Frieswyk, C. B. and J. B. Zedler. 2007. Vegetation change in Great Lakes coastal wetlands: deviation from the historical cycle. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33: 366–80.CrossRef
Grace, J. B. 1993. The adaptive significance of clonal reproduction in angiosperms — an aquatic perspective. Aquatic Botany 44: 159–80.CrossRef
Hollenhorst, T. P., T. N. Brown, L. B. Johnson, J. J. H. Ciborowski, and G. E. Host. 2007. Methods for generating multi-scale watershed delineations for indicator development in Great Lakes coastal ecosystems. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33: 13–26.CrossRef
International Joint Commission. 2004. Lake Ontario St. Lawrence river regulation brochure. International St. Lawrence River Board of Control. http://www.islrbc.org/new-Version/ brochure.html.
Johnson, S. and E. Rejmankova. 2005. Impacts of land use on nutrient distribution and vegetation composition of freshwater wetlands in northern Belize. Wetlands 25: 89–100.CrossRef
Johnston, C. A., B. L. Bedford, M. Bourdaghs, T. Brown, C. B. Frieswyk, M. Tulbure, L. Vaccaro, and J. B. Zedler. 2007. Plant species indicators of environmental condition in Great Lakes coastal marshes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33 (Special Issue 3): 106–24.CrossRef
Johnston, C. A., T. Brown, T. Hollenhorst, P. Wolter, N. Danz, and G. Niemi. 2009. GIS in support of ecological indicator development. p. 1095–1113.In Manual of Geographic Information Systems. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Jordan, T. E., D. F. Whigham, and D. L. Correll. 1990. Effects of nutrient and litter manipulations on the narrow-leaved cattail,Typha angustifolia L. Aquatic Botany 36: 179–91.CrossRef
Keddy, P. A. and A. A. Reznicek. 1986. Great-Lakes vegetation dynamics — the role of fluctuating water levels and buried seeds. Journal of Great Lakes Research 12: 25–36.
King, R. S., C. J. Richardson, D. L. Urban, and E. A. Romanowicz. 2004. Spatial dependency of vegetation-environment linkages in an anthropogenically influenced wetland ecosystem. Ecosystems 7: 75–97.CrossRef
Kuehn, K. A., M. J. Lemke, K. Suberkropp, and R. G. Wetzel. 2000. Microbial biomass and production associated with decaying leaf litter of the emergent macrophyteJuncus effusus. Limnology and Oceanography 45: 862–70.CrossRef
Kuehn, K. A. and K. Suberkropp. 1998. Decomposition of standing litter of the freshwater emergent macrophyteJuncus effusus. Freshwater Biology 40: 717–27.CrossRef
McNaughton, S. 1968. Autotoxic feedback in relation to germination and seedling growth inTypha latifolia. Ecology 49: 367–69.CrossRef
Newman, S., J. Schuette, J. B. Grace, K. Rutchey, T. Fontaine, K. R. Reddy, and M. Pietrucha. 1998. Factors influencing cattail abundance in the northern Everglades. Aquatic Botany 60: 265–80.CrossRef
Olde Venterink, H., N. M. Pieterse, D. M. Belgers, M. J. Wassen, and P. C. Ruiter. 2002. N, P, K budgets along nutrient availability and productivity gradients in wetlands. Ecological Applications 12: 1010–26.CrossRef
Olde Venterink, H., R. E. van der Vliet, and M. J. Wassen. 2001. Nutrient limitation along a productivity gradient in wet meadows. Plant and Soil 234: 171–79.CrossRef
Robertson, G. P., D. C. Coleman, C. S. Bledsoe, and P. Sollins. 1999. Standard soil methods for long-term ecological research. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
SAS. 2002. SAS Online Doc, Version 9. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA.
Stevens, M. H. H., D. E. Bunker, S. A. Schnitzer, and W. P. Carson. 2004. Establishment limitation reduces species recruitment and species richness as soil resources rise. Journal of Ecology 92: 339–47.CrossRef
Sydes, C. and J. P. Grime. 1981a. Effects of tree leaf litter on herbaceous vegetation in deciduous woodland. 1. Field investigations. Journal of Ecology 69: 237–48.CrossRef
Sydes, C. and J. P. Grime. 1981b. Effects of tree leaf litter on herbaceous vegetation in deciduous woodland. 2. An experimental investigation. Journal of Ecology 69: 249–62.CrossRef
Tilman, D. 1993. Species richness of experimental productivity gradients — how important is colonization limitation? Ecology 74: 2179–91.CrossRef
Tulbure, M. G., C. A. Johnston, and D. L. Auger. 2007. Rapid invasion of a Great Lakes coastal wetland by non-nativePhragmites australis andTypha. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33 (Special Issue 3): 269–79.CrossRef
Vaccaro, L. 2005. Patterns, mechanisms and ecological implications of cattail (Typha spp.) dominance in Great Lakes wetlands. M.S. Thesis. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
van der Valk, A. G. and C. B. Davis. 1978a. Primary production of praire glacial marshes. p. 21–37.In R. E. Good, D. F. Whigham, and R. L. Simpson (eds.) Freshwater Wetlands. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY, USA.
van der Valk, A. G. and C. B. Davis. 1978b. Role of seed banks in vegetation dynamics of prairie glacial marshes. Ecology 59: 322–35.CrossRef
van der Valk, A. G., J. M. Rhymer, and H. R. Murkin. 1991. Flooding and the decomposition of litter of four emergent plant species in a prairie wetland. Wetlands 11: 1–16.CrossRef
Wilcox, D. A., S. I. Apfelbaum, and R. D. Hiebert. 1984. Cattail invasion of sedge meadows following hydrologic disturbance in the Cowles bog wetland complex, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Wetlands 4: 115–28.CrossRef
Wilcox, D. A., J. A. Ingram, K. P. Kowalski, J. E. Meeker, M. L. Carlson, X. Yichum, K. L. Holmes, and N. J. Patterson. 2005. Evaluation of water level regulation influences in Lake Ontario and upper St. Lawrence River coastal wetland plant communities. Final project report to the International Joint Commission, Washington, DC, USA and Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Wilcox, D. A., K. P. Kowalski, H. L. Hoare, M. L. Carlson, and H. N. Morgan. 2008. Cattail invasion of sedge/grass meadows in Lake Ontario: photo-interpretation analysis of sixteen wetlands over five decades. Journal of Great Lakes Research 34: 301–23.CrossRef
Wilcox, D. A. and X. Yichun. 2007. Predicting wetland plant community responses to proposed water-level-regulation plans for Lake Ontario: GIS-based modeling. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33: 751–73.CrossRef
Wisheu, I. C. and P. A. Keddy. 1992. Competition and centrifugal organization of plant-communities — theory and tests. Journal of Vegetation Science 3: 147–56.CrossRef
Wolter, P. T., C. A. Johnston, and G. J. Niemi. 2006. Land use land cover change in the U.S. Great Lakes basin 1992 to 2001. Journal of Great Lakes Research 32: 607–28.CrossRef
Woo, I. and J. B. Zedler. 2002. Can nutrients alone shift a sedge meadow towards dominance by the invasiveTypha Xglauca? Wetlands 22: 509–21.CrossRef
Xiong, S. J., M. E. Johansson, F. M. R. Hughes, A. Hayes, K. S. Richards, and C. Nilsson. 2003. Interactive effects of soil moisture, vegetation canopy, plant litter and seed addition on plant diversity in a wetland community. Journal of Ecology 91: 976–86.CrossRef
Xiong, S. J. and C. Nilsson. 1999. The effects of plant litter on vegetation: a meta-analysis. Journal of Ecology 87: 984–94.CrossRef
Xiong, S. J., C. Nilsson, M. E. Johansson, and R. Jansson. 2001. Responses of riparian plants to accumulation of silt and plant litter: The importance of plant traits. Journal of Vegetation Science 12: 481–90.CrossRef
- Litter accumulation promotes dominance of invasive species of cattails (Typha spp.) in Lake Ontario wetlands
Volume 29, Issue 3 , pp 1036-1048
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- barrier beach wetlands
- embayment wetlands
- Great Lakes
- hydrologic fluctuations
- litter removal experiment
- species richness
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Fernow Hall, 14853, Ithaca, New York, USA
- 3. Department of Biology & Microbiology, South Dakota State University, SAG 110, Box 2207B, 57007, Brookings, South Dakota, USA