Review

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 153-161

Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responses

  • Rajput Zahid Iqbal Affiliated withDepartment of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University
  • , Hu Song-hua Affiliated withDepartment of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University Email author 
  • , Xiao Chen-wen Affiliated withDepartment of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University
  • , Arijo Abdullah G. Affiliated withDepartment of Parasitology, Sindh Agriculture University

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Abstract

Vaccines require optimal adjuvants including immunopotentiator and delivery systems to offer long term protection from infectious diseases in animals and man. Initially it was believed that adjuvants are responsible for promoting strong and sustainable antibody responses. Now it has been shown that adjuvants influence the isotype and avidity of antibody and also affect the properties of cell-mediated immunity. Mostly oil emulsions, lipopolysaccharides, polymers, saponins, liposomes, cytokines, ISCOMs (immunostimulating complexes), Freund’s complete adjuvant, Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, alums, bacterial toxins etc., are common adjuvants under investigation. Saponin based adjuvants have the ability to stimulate the cell mediated immune system as well as to enhance antibody production and have the advantage that only a low dose is needed for adjuvant activity. In the present study the importance of adjuvants, their role and the effect of saponin in immune system is reviewed.

Key words

Adjuvants Saponins Immunity Immunostimulators Steroids Triterpenoid

CLC number

Q939.91 S852.4