Active efflux across the blood-brain barrier: Role of the solute carrier family
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- Kusuhara, H. & Sugiyama, Y. Neurotherapeutics (2005) 2: 73. doi:10.1602/neurorx.2.1.73
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The brain uptake of xenobiotics is restricted by the blood-brain brain barrier formed by brain capillary endothelial cells. Active efflux transport systems in the blood-brain barrier work as a detoxification system in the brain by facilitating removal of xenobiotic compounds from the brain. Drugs, acting in the brain, have to overcome such efflux mechanisms to achieve clinically significant concentration in the brain. Multiple transporters are involved in this efflux transport in the brain capillaries. In the past few years, considerable progress has been made in the cloning of these transporters and their functional characterization after heterologous expression. Members of the solute carrier family (SLC) play an important role in the efflux transport, especially for organic anions, which include organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP/SLCO) and organic anion transporters (OAT/SLC22A). It is believed that coordination of the members of SLC family, and ABC transporters, such as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein, and breast cancer-resistant protein (BCRP/ABCG2), allows an efficient vectorial transport across the endothelial cells to remove xenobiotics from the brain. In this review, we shall summarize our current knowledge about their localization, molecular and functional characteristics, and substrate and inhibitor specificity.