, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 325-355

Inflammatory neurodegeneration mediated by nitric oxide, glutamate, and mitochondria

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Abstract

In inflammatory, infectious, ischemic, and neurodegenerative pathologies of th central nervous system (CNS) glia become “activated” by inflammatory mediators, and express new proteins such as the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Although these activated glia have beneficial roles, in vitro they potently kill cocultured neurons, and there is increasing evidence that they contribute to pathology in vivo. Nitric oxide (NO) from iNOS appears to be a key mediator of such glial-induced neuronal death. The high sensitivity of neurons to NO is partly due to NO causing inhibition of respiration, rapid glutamate release from both astrocytes and neurons, and subsequent excitotoxic death of the neurons. NO is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration, due to reversible binding of NO to cytochrome oxidase in competition with oxygen, resulting in inhibition of energy production and sensitization to hypoxia. Activated astrocytes or microglia cause a potent inhibition of respiration in cocultured neurons due to glial NO inhibiting cytochrome oxidase within the neurons, resulting in ATP depletion and glutamate release. In some conditions, glutamate-induced neuronal death can itself be mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor activation of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS) causing mitochondrial damage. In addition NO can be converted to a number of reactive derivatives such as peroxynitrite, NO2, N2O3, and S-nitrosothiols that can kill cells in part by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration or activation of mitochondrial permeability transition, triggering neuronal apoptosis or necrosis.