, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 261-283

Resistance to tetracycline, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, trimethoprim, and sulfonamide drug classes

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The discovery and use of antimicrobial agents in the last 50 yr has been one of medicine’s greatest achievements. These agents have reduced morbidity and mortality of humans and animals and have directly contributed to human’s increased life span. However, bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to these agents by mutations, which alter existing bacterial proteins, and/or acquisition of new genes, which provide new proteins. The latter are often associated with mobile elements that can be exchanged quickly across bacterial populations and may carry multiple antibiotic genes fo resistance. In some case, virulence factors are also found on these same mobile elements. There is mounting evidence that antimicrobial use in agriculture, both plant and animal, and for environmental purposes does influence the antimicrobial resistant development in bacteria important in humans and in reverse. In this article, we will examine the genes which confer resistance to tetracycline, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS), trimethoprim, and sulfonamide.