, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 249-260

Procedures for microencapsulation of enzymes, cells and genetically engineered microorganisms

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Methods to microencapsulate enzyme, cells, and genetically engineered cells have been described in this article. More specific examples of enzyme encapsulation include the microencapsulation of xanthine oxidase for Lesch-Nyhan disease; phenylalanine ammonia lyase for pheny, ketonuria and microencapsulation of multienzyme systems with cofactor recycling for multistep enzyme conversions. Methods for cell encapsulation include the details for encapsulating hepatocytes for liver failure and for gene therapy. This also includes the details of a novel two-step method for encapsulation of high concentrations of smaller cells. Another new approach is the detailed method of the encapsulation of genetically engineered Escherichia coli DH5 cells for lowering urea, ammonia, and other metabolites in kidney or, liver failure and other diseases.