Immunologic Research

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 273–280

Neuroendocrine-immune system interactions in amphibians

Implications for understanding global amphibian declines
  • Louise A. Rollins-Smith

DOI: 10.1385/IR:23:2-3:273

Cite this article as:
Rollins-Smith, L.A. Immunol Res (2001) 23: 273. doi:10.1385/IR:23:2-3:273


Amphibians are ancient creatures valued by biologists and naturalists around the world. They share with all other vertebrates a complex neuroendocrine system that enables them to flourish in a variety of aquatic and semiaquatic environments. Studies from a number of laboratorie shave demonstrated that the immune system of amphibian species is nearly as complex as that of mammals. Yet for reasons that are not well understood, amphibian species are facing greater survival challenges than in the recent past. This article will review our current understanding of the neuroendocrine immune system interactions in amphibians and address the question of whether environmental stressors may contribute to immunosuppression and amphibian declines.

Key Words

AmphibianAntimicrobial peptidesCatecholaminesCorticosteroid hormonesFrogGlobal amphibian declinesGranular glandsToad

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louise A. Rollins-Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and PediatricsVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashville