Matrix-degrading and pro-inflammatory changes in human vascular endothelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke condensate
- Cite this article as:
- Nordskog, B.K., Blixt, A.D., Morgan, W.T. et al. Cardiovasc Toxicol (2003) 3: 101. doi:10.1385/CT:3:2:101
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Cigarette smoking has been associated with an increase in the severity and prevalence of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. To begin our investigation ofthis finding, we used an integrated approach combining gene expression profiling, protein analysis, cytokine measurements, and cytotoxicity determinations to examine molecular responses of cultured human aortic and coronary endothelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and nicotine. Exposure of endothelial cells to CSC (30 and 60 μg/mL TPM) for 24 h resulted in minimal cytotoxicity, and the upregulation of genes involved in matrix degradation (MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9), xenobiotic metabolism (HO-1 and CYP1A2), and downregulation of genes involved in cell cycle regulation (including TOP2A, CCNB1, CCNA, CDKN3). Exposure of cells to a high physiological concentration of nicotine resulted in few differentially expressed genes. Immunoblot analysis of proteins selected from genes shown to be differentially regulated by microarray analysis revealed similar responses. Finally, a number of inflammatory cytokines measured in culture media were elevated in response to CSC. Together, these results describe a complex proinflammatory response, possibly mediating the recruitment of leukocytes through cytokine signaling. Additionally, fibrous cap destabilization may be facilitated by matrix metalloproteinase upregulation.