, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 439-449

Cytoskeletal regulation of nitric oxide synthase

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Abstract

The three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)—endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and neural NOS (nNOS)—colocalize with the cytoskeleton including actin microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments directly or indirectly. These colocalizations enable optimal nitric oxide production and help NOS exert their functions. The reorganization of cytoskeletal polymerization state induced by extracellular stimuli such as shear stress, hypoxia, and drugs regulates eNOS, nNOS, and iNOS. Alterations of nitric oxide production caused by cytoskeletal reorganization play an important role in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This review focuses on recent data regarding the regulation of NOS by the cytoskeleton at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels.