The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between trace elements and the incidence of cervical cancer. Tissue and serum levels of six elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ca, and Se) and the Cu/Zn ratio in 40 cases of patients with cervical cancer, 30 cases of uterine myoma, and 50 healthy subjects were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry; the selenium content was determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the tissue contents of Zn, Se, and Ca were significantly lower and the Cu and Fe concentrations and Cu/Zn ratio were significantly higher in cervical cancer tissue than that for paired nonlesion tissue (p<0.02 and p<0.001, respectively). The serum levels of Zn, Se, Ca, and Fe were lower and Cu and Mn levels and Cu/Zn ratio were higher in patients with cervical cancer than in healthy subjects (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively) and in the uterine myoma group compared with healthy subjects (p< 0.05–0.001). There are no significant differences in the contents of six elements and the Cu/Zn ratio between uterine myoma tissue and paired nonlesion tissue. The results showed also that the Fe level and Cu/Zn ratio were significantly higher and the Zn and Se levels were significantly lower in cervical cancer tissue than in uterine myoma tissue (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). The serum Cu level and Cu/Zn ratio were significantly higher in the cervical cancer group than the uterine myoma group (p<0.01). Data were also analyzed using multivarate logistic regression. After adjustment for age, occupation, life habit, and other covariates for the development of cervical cancer, the odds ratios were 22.64 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.64–90.88, p=0.001) for Cu, 0.11 (95% CI: 0.034–0.373; p=0.005) for Zn, and 0.60 (95% CI: 0.36–0.99, p=0.01) for Se. Thus, the serum and tissue levels of Cu increase and the deficiency of Zn and Se may be risk factors for the development of cervical cancer.