Agarwal, D.K., A. Agarwal, M. Singh, K. Satya, S. Agarwal, and K.N. Agarwal. 1998. “Pregnancy Wastage in Rural Varanasi: Relationship With Maternal Nutrition and Sociodemographic Characteristics.” Indian Pediatrics 35(11):1071–79.
Allison, P.D. 1999. Logistic Regression Using the SAS System: Theory and Application. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
Andersen, N.A.M., J. Wohlfahrt, P. Christens, J. Olsen, and M. Melbye. 2000. “Maternal Age and Fetal Loss: Population Based Register Linkage Study.” British Medical Journal
Antonov, A.N. 1947. “Children Born During the Siege of Leningrad in 1942.” Journal of Pediatrics
Arck, P.C. 2001. “Stress and Pregnancy Loss: Role of Immune Mediators, Hormones and Neurotransmitters.” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Arck, P.C., M. Rose, K. Hertwig, E. Hagen, M. Hildebrandt, and B.F. Klapp. 2001. “Stress and Immune Mediators in Miscarriage.” Human Reproduction
Armstrong, E.G., P.H. Ehrlich, S. Birken, J.P. Schlatterer, E. Siris, W.C. Hembree, and R.E. Canfield. 1984. “Use of a Highly Sensitive and Specific Immunoradiometric Assay for Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Urine of Normal, Nonpregnant, and Pregnant Individuals.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ashton, B., K. Hill, A. Piazza, and R. Zeitz. 1984. “Famine in China, 1958–61.” Population and Development Review
Bongaarts, J. and R.G. Potter. 1983. Fertility, Biology, and Behavior: An Analysis of the Proximate Determinants. New York: Academic Press.
Boyles, S.H., R.B. Ness, J.A. Grisso, N. Markovic, J. Bromberger, and D. CiFelli. 2000. “Life Event Stress and the Association With Spontaneous Abortion in Gravid Women at an Urban Emergency Department.” Health Psychology
Carlson, E., J.M. Hoem, and J. Rychtarikova. 1999. “Trajectories of Fetal Loss in the Czech Republic.” Demography
Carlson, E. and M. Mourgova. 2003. “Demographic Consequences of Social Inequality in Pregnancy Outcomes.” Genus 59(2):11–28.
Casterline, J.B. 1989a. “Collecting Data on Pregnancy Loss: A Review of Evidence From the World Fertility Survey.” Studies in Family Planning
— 1989b. “Maternal Age, Gravidity, and Pregnancy Spacing Effects on Spontaneous Fetal Mortality.” Social Biology 36(3–4):186–212.
Chahnazarian, A. 1988. “Determinants of the Sex Ratio at Birth: Review of Recent Literature.” Social Biology 35:214–35.
Coale, A.J. 1984. Rapid Population Change in China, 1952–1982. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Coale, A.J. and S.L. Chen. 1987. Basic Data on Fertility in the Provinces of China, 1940–82. Honolulu, HI: East-West Population Institute, East-West Center.
Dickinson, H.O., J.L. Hutton, L.H. Greaves, T.J. Dummer, and L. Parker. 2002. “Deprivation and Stillbirth Risk in Rural and Urban Areas.” Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Edwards, L.J. and I.C. McMillen. 2002. “Impact of Maternal Undernutrition During the Periconceptional Period, Fetal Number, and Fetal Sex on the Development of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Adrenal Axis in Sheep During Late Gestation.” Biology of Reproduction
Ellett, K., E.J. Buxton, and D.M. Luesley. 1992. “The Effect of Ethnic Origin on the Rate of Spontaneous Late Mid-Trimester Abortion.” Ethnicity and Disease 2(1):84–86.
El-Saadani, S. 2000. “High Fertility Does Not Cause Spontaneous Intrauterine Fetal Loss: The Determinants of Spontaneous Fetal Loss in Egypt.” Social Biology 47(3–4):218–43.
García-Enguídanos, A., M.E. Calle, J. Valero, S. Luna, and V. Dominguez-Rojas. 2002. “Risk Factors in Miscarriage: A Review.” European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Hansen, J.P. 1986. “Older Maternal Age and Pregnancy Outcome: A Review of the Literature.” Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey
Hoesli, I.M., I. Walter-Gobel, S. Tercanli, and W. Holzgreve. 2001. “Spontaneous Fetal Loss Rates in a Non-Selected Population.” American Journal of Medical Genetics
Hoyert, D.L. 1996. “Medical and Life-Style Risk Factors Affecting Fetal Mortality, 1989–90.” National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Statistics 20(31):1–32.
Joachim, R.A., M. Hildebrandt, J. Oder, B.F. Klapp, and P.C. Arck. 2001. “Murine Stress-Triggered Abortion Is Mediated by Increase of Cd8+ Tnf-Alpha+ Decidual Cells Via Substance P.” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Kane, P. 1987. “The Demography of Famine.” Genus 43(1–2):43–58.
— 1988. Famine in China, 1959-61: Demographic and Social Implications. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Kang, H., C. Magee, C. Mahan, K. Lee, F. Murphy, L. Jackson, and G. Matanoski. 2001. “Pregnancy Outcomes Among U.S. Gulf War Veterans: A Population-Based Survey of 30,000 Veterans.” Annals of Epidemiology
Kesmodel, U., K. Wisborg, S.F. Olsen, T.B. Henriksen, and N.J. Secher. 2002. “Moderate Alcohol Intake During Pregnancy and the Risk of Stillbirth and Death in the First Year of Life.” American Journal of Epidemiology
King, J.C. 2003. “The Risk of Maternal Nutritional Depletion and Poor Outcomes Increases in Early or Closely Spaced Pregnancies.” Journal of Nutrition 133(5, Suppl. 2):1732S-36S.
LaFleur, W.R. 1992. Liquid Life: Abortion and Buddhism in Japan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lavely, W. 1991. “China Unveils Its Monumental Two per Thousand Fertility Survey.” Asian and Pacific Census Forum 5(4):89–92, 116.
Lee, J.Z. and F. Wang. 1999. One Quarter of Humanity: Malthusian Mythology and Chinese Realities, 1700–2000. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Léridon, H. 1976. “Facts and Artifacts in the Study of Intra-Uterine Mortality: A Reconsideration From Pregnancy Histories.” Population Studies
— 1977. Human Fertility: The Basic Components. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Li, R.M. and S.F. Newcomer. 1996. “The Exclusion of Never-Married Women From Chinese Fertility Surveys.” Studies in Family Planning
Luke, B. 1979. Maternal Nutrition. Boston: Little, Brown.
Milad, M.P., S.C. Klock, S. Moses, and R. Chatterton. 1998. “Stress and Anxiety Do Not Result in Pregnancy Wastage.” Human Reproduction
Nelson, D.B., J.A. Grisso, M.M. Joffe, C. Brensinger, L. Shaw, and E. Datner. 2003. “Does Stress Influence Early Pregnancy Loss?” Annals of Epidemiology
Neugebauer, R., J. Kline, Z. Stein, P. Shrout, D. Warburton, and M. Susser. 1996. “Association of Stressful Life Events With Chromosomally Normal Spontaneous Abortion.” Annals of Epidemiology 143:588–96.
Nyberg, D.A., F.C. Laing, R.A. Filly, M. Uri-Simmons, and R.B. Jeffrey, Jr. 1983. “Ultrasonographic Differentiation of the Gestational Sac of Early Intrauterine Pregnancy From the Pseudogestational Sac of Ectopic Pregnancy.” Radiology 146:755–59.
Peng, X. 1987. “Demographic Consequences of the Great Leap Forward in China’s Provinces.” Population and Development Review
Rajab, K.E., A.M. Mohammad, and F. Mustafa. 2000. “Incidence of Spontaneous Abortion in Bahrain Before and After the Gulf War of 1991.” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Rosso, P. 1990. Nutrition and Metabolism in Pregnancy: Mother and Fetus. New York: Oxford University Press.
Santow, G. and M. Bracher. 1989. “Do Gravidity and Age Affect Pregnancy Outcome?” Social Biology 36(1–2):9–22.
Scharping, T. 2003. Birth Control in China 1949–2000: Population Policy and Demographic Development. New York: Routledge.
Scott, S. and C.J. Duncan. 2002. Demography and Nutrition: Evidence From Historical and Contemporary Populations. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science.
Shankar, M., O. Navti, O. Amu, and J.C. Konje. 2002. “Assessment of Stillbirth Risk and Associated Risk Factors in a Tertiary Hospital.” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Shapiro, S. and D. Bross. 1980. “Risk Factors for Fetal Death in Studies of Vital Statistics Data: Inference and Limitations.” Pp. 89–106 in Human Embryonic and Fetal Death, edited by I.H. Porter and E.B. Hook. New York: Academic Press.
Simpson, J.L. and S. Carson. 1993. “Biological Causes of Foetal Loss.” Pp. 287–315 in Biomedical and Demographic Determinants of Reproduction, edited by R.H. Gray, H. Leridon, and A. Spira. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
Simpson, J.L. and J.L. Mills. 1986. “Methodologic Problems in Determining Fetal Loss Rates.” Pp. 227–58 in Chorionic Villus Sampling: Fetal Diagnosis of Genetic Diseases in the First Trimester, edited by B. Brambati, G. Simoni, and S. Fabro. New York: M. Dekker.
Simpson, J.L., J.L. Mills, L.B. Holmes, C.L. Ober, J. Aarons, L. Jovanovic, and R.H. Knopp. 1987. “Low Fetal Loss Rates After Ultrasound-Proved Viability in Early Pregnancy.” Journal of the American Medical Association
Stein, Z. and M. Susser. 1977. “Famine and Fertility.” Pp. 123–46 in Nutrition and Human Reproduction, edited by H. Mosley. New York: Plenum Press.
Stein, Z., M. Susser, G. Saenger, and F. Morolla. 1975. Famine and Human Development: The Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944–1945. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stephansson, O., P.W. Dickman, A.L.V. Johansson, and S. Cnattingius. 2001. “The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Stillbirth Risk in Sweden.” International Journal of Epidemiology
Sun, Y., Y. Che, E. Gao, J. Olsen, and W. Zhou. 2003. “Induced Abortion and Risk of Subsequent Miscarriage.” International Journal of Epidemiology
Symonds, M.E., H. Budge, T. Stephenson, and I.C. McMillen. 2001. “Fetal Endocrinology and Development-Manipulation and Adaptation to Long-Term Nutritional and Environmental Challenges.” Reproduction
Symonds, M., G. Gopalakrishnan, J. Bispham, S. Pearce, J. Dandrea, A. Mostyn, M. Ramsay, and T. Stephenson. 2003. “Maternal Nutrient Restriction During Placental Growth, Programming of Fetal Adiposity and Juvenile Blood Pressure Control.” Archives of Physiological Biochemistry
Vonnahme, K.A., B.W. Hess, T.R. Hansen, R.J. McCormick, D.C. Rule, G.E. Moss, W.J. Murdoch, M.J. Nijland, D.C. Skinner, P.W. Nathanielsz, and S.P. Ford. 2003. “Maternal Undernutrition From Early- to Mid-Gestation Leads to Growth Retardation, Cardiac Ventricular Hypertrophy, and Increased Liver Weight in the Fetal Sheep.” Biology of Reproduction
Walder, G.A. and Y. Su. 2003. “The Cultural Revolution in the Countryside: Scope, Timing and Human Impact.” China Quarterly
Wang, F. 1995. “The Rise of Abortion in Modern China.” Presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, April 6–8, San Francisco.
Wang, F. and Q. Yang. 1996. “Age at Marriage and the First Birth Interval: The Emerging Change in Sexual Behavior Among Young Couples in China.” Population and Development Review
Wang, X., C. Chen, L. Wang, D. Chen, W. Guang, and J. French. 2003. “Conception, Early Pregnancy Loss, and Time to Clinical Pregnancy: A Population-Based Prospective Study.” Fertility and Sterility
Wapner, R. J. and D. Lewis. 2002. “Genetics and Metabolic Causes of Stillbirth.” Seminars in Perinatology
Wilcox, A.J., C.R. Weinberg, R.E. Wehmann, E.G. Armstrong, R.E. Canfield, and B.C. Nisula. 1985. “Measuring Early Pregnancy Loss: Laboratory and Field Methods.” Fertility and Sterility 44:366–74.
Winbo, I., F. Serenius, G. Dahlquist, and B. Källén. 2001. “Maternal Risk Factors for Cause-Specific Stillbirth and Neonatal Death.” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 80: 235–44.
Wood, J.W. 1994. Dynamics of Human Reproduction: Biology, Biometry, Demography. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
World Health Organization. 1970. “Spontaneous and Induced Abortion, Report of a WHO Scientific Group.” World Health Organization Technical Report Series 461:3–51.
World Health Organization. 2000. “Reproductive Health During Conflict and Displacement.” WHO/RHR/00.13.
Wynn, A. and M. Wynn. 1993. “The Effects of Food Shortage on Human Reproduction.” Nutrition and Health 9(1):43–52.
Yang, D.L. 1996. Calamity and Reform in China: State, Rural Society, and Institutional Change Since the Great Leap Famine. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Zinaman, M.J., E.D. Clegg, C.C. Brown, J. O’Connor, and S.G. Selevan. 1996. “Estimates of Human Fertility and Pregnancy Loss.” Fertility and Sterility 65:503–509.