Orphans in Africa: parental death, poverty, and school enrollment
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
We examine the impact of orphanhood on children’s school enrollment in 10 sub-Saharan African countries. Although poorer children in Africa are less likely to attend school, the lower enrollment of orphans is not accounted for solely by their poverty. We find that orphans are less likely to be enrolled than are nonorphans with whom they live. Consistent with Hamilton’s rule, the theory that the closeness of biological ties governs altruistic behavior, outcomes for orphans depend on the relatedness of orphans to their household heads. The lower enrollment of orphans is largely explained by the greater tendency of orphans to live with distant relatives or unrelated caregivers.
- Ainsworth, M., K. Beegle, and G. Koda. 2002. “The Impact of Adult Mortality on Primary School Enrollment in Northwestern Tanzania.” Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series. World Bank, Washington, DC.
- Ainsworth, M. and D. Filmer. 2002. “Poverty, AIDS and Children’s Schooling: A Targeting Dilemma.” Policy Research Working Paper 2885. World Bank, Washington, DC.
- Ainsworth, M. and I. Semali. 1998. “Who Is Most Likely to Die of AIDS? Socioeconomic Correlates of Adult Deaths in Kagera Region, Tanzania.” Pp. 95–110 in Confronting AIDS: Evidence From the Developing World, edited by M. Ainsworth, L. Fransen, and M. Over. Washington, DC: World Bank.
- Akresh, R. 2003. “Risk, Network Quality and Family Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso.” Working paper. Economic Growth Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT. Available on-line at http://www.econ.Yale.edu/~rsa7/Papers/Akresh_JobMarketPaper.pdf
- Bicego, G., S. Rutstein, and K. Johnson. 2003. “Dimensions of the Emerging Orphan Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Social Science and Medicine 56:1235–47. CrossRef
- Bishai, D., E.D. Suliman, H. Brahmbhatt, F. Wabwire-Mangen, G. Kigozi, N. Sewankambo, D. Serwadda, and R. Gray. 2003. “Does Biological Relatedness Affect Child Survival?” Demographic Research 8(9). Available on-line at www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol8/9/ 8-9.pdf
- Bledsoe C. and A. Brandon. 1987. “Child Fostering and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Preliminary Questions and Answers.” Pp. 287–302 in Mortality and Society in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by E. Van der Walle. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Bledsoe, C., D. Ewbank, and U. Isiugo-Abanihe. 1988. “The Effect of Child Fostering on Feeding Practices and Access to Health Services in Rural Sierra Leone.” Social Science and Medicine 27:627–36. CrossRef
- Case, A., I-F. Lin, and S. McLanahan. 2000. “How Hungry Is the Selfish Gene?” Economic Journal 110(466):781–804. CrossRef
- Case, A. and C. Paxson. 2001. “Mothers and Others: Who Invests in Children’s Health?” Journal of Health Economics 20:301–28. CrossRef
- Daly, M. and M. Wilson. 1987. “The Darwinian Psychology of Discriminative Parental Solicitude.” Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 35:91–144.
- Filmer, D. and L. Pritchett. 1999. “The Effect of Household Wealth on Educational Attainment: Evidence From 35 Countries.” Population and Development Review 25(1):85–120. CrossRef
- Foster, A. and M. Rosenzweig. 1996. “Technical Change and Human Capital Returns and Investments: Evidence From the Green Revolution.” American Economic Review 86:931–53.
- Foster, G. 1996. “AIDS and the Orphan Crisis in Zimbabwe.” AIDS Analysis Africa 6(3):12–13.
- Foster, G., R. Shakespeare, F. Chinemana, H. Jackson, S. Gregson, C. Marange, and S. Mashumba. 1995. “Orphan Prevalence and Extended Family Care in a Peri-urban Community in Zimbabwe.” AIDS Care 7:3–17. CrossRef
- Gertler, P., D. Levine, and S. Martinez. 2003. “Losing the Presence and Presents of Parents: Do Parents Matter for More Than Their Money?” Unpublished manuscript. Haas School of Business, University of California at Berkeley. Available on-line at http://www.economics. pomona.edu/ccConrad/Gertleretal-PresenceandPre.pdf
- Hamilton, W.D. 1964a. “The Genetical Evolution of Social Biology.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:1–16. CrossRef
- —. 1964b. “The Genetical Evolution of Social Biology.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 7: 17–52. CrossRef
- Isiugo-Abanihe, U.C. 1985. “Child Fosterage in West Africa.” Population and Development Review 11(1):53–73. CrossRef
- Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 2003. Follow-up to the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS, Progress Report on the Global Response to the HIV/AIDS Epidemic 2003. Available on-line at http://www.unaids.org/ungass/en/ global/UNGASS_Report_2003_en.pdf
- Kamali, A., J.A. Seeley, A.J. Nunn, J.F. Kengeya-Kayondo, A. Ruberantwari, and D.W. Mulder. 1996. “The Orphan Problem: Experience of a Sub-Saharan Africa Rural Population in the AIDS Epidemic.” AIDS Care 8:509–15. CrossRef
- Lloyd, C.B. and A.K. Blanc. 1996. “Children’s Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Fathers, Mothers, and Others.” Population and Development Review 22:265–98. CrossRef
- Lundberg, M. and M. Over. 2000. “Transfers and Household Welfare in Kagera.” Unpublished manuscript. Available on-line at http://www.iaen.org/files.cgi/199_38lundbergtext.pdf
- Monk, N. 2000. “Underestimating the Magnitude of a Mature Crisis: Dynamics of Orphaning and Fostering in Rural Uganda.” Orphan Alert: International Perspectives on Children Left Behind by HIV/AIDS. Available on-line at http://www.orphans.fxb.org/media/FXBDurban.pdf
- Ntozi, J.P.M. and S. Nakayiwa. 1999. “AIDS in Uganda: How Has the Household Coped With the Epidemic?” Pp. 155–81 in The Continuing African HIV/AIDS Epidemic, edited by J.C. Caldwell, I.O. Orubuloye, and J.P.M. Ntozi. Canberra, Australia: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University. Available on-line at http://htc.anu.edu/pdfs/continuingHIV/Ntozi_Naka.pdf
- Spira, R, P. Lepage, P Msellati, P. Van De Perre, V. Leroy, A. Simonon, E. Karita, and F. Dabis. 1999. “Natural History of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in Children: A Five-Year Prospective Study in Rwanda.” Pediatrics 104(5):e58. CrossRef
- UNAIDS. 2000. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS.
- UNAIDS. 2002. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Available on-line at http:// www.unaids.org/barcelona/presskit/report.html
- UNAIDS/WHO. 2000. Update: Epidemiological Fact Sheets on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections. Available on-line at http://www.unaids.org/fact_sheets/files/Africa_Eng.html
- Urassa, M., J.T. Boerma, J.Z.L. Ng’weshemi, R. Isingo, D. Schapink, and Y. Kumogola. 1997. “Orphanhood, Child Fostering and the AIDS Epidemic in Rural Tanzania.” Health Transition Review 7(Supp. 2):141–53.
- World Bank. 2002. Education and HIV/AIDS, A Window of Hope. Washington, DC: World Bank.
- Orphans in Africa: parental death, poverty, and school enrollment
Volume 41, Issue 3 , pp 483-508
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors