Adeokun, L.A. 1982. “Marital Sexual Relationships and Birth Spacing Among Two Yoruba Sub-Groups.” Africa
—. 1983. “Marital Sexuality and Birth-Spacing Among the Yoruba.” Pp. 127–37 in Female and Male in West Africa, edited by C. Oppong. London: George Allen and Unwin.
—. 1985. “Fertility Inhibiting Effects of the Intermediate Fertility Variables in Two Nigerian Sub-Groups.” Genus 41(3–4): 89–106.
Benefo, K.D. 1995. “The Determinants of the Duration of Postpartum Sexual Abstinence in West Africa: A Multilevel Analysis.” Demography
Bledsoe, C. 1987. “Side-Stepping the Postpartum Sex Taboo: Mende Cultural Perceptions of Tinned Milk in Sierra Leone.” Pp. 101–24 in The Cultural Roots of African Fertility Regimes, Proceedings of the Ile-Ife Conference, edited by E. van de Walle and J.A. Ebigola. Philadelphia: Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania.
Bledsoe, C.H., A.G. Hill, U. D’Alessandro, and P. Langerock. 1994. “Constructing Natural Fertility: The Use of Western Contraceptive Technologies in Rural Gambia.” Population and Development Review
Bongaarts, J.O. 1981. “The Child-Spacing Tradition and the Postpartum Taboo in Tropical Africa: Anthropological Evidence.” Pp. 25–72 in Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change, edited by H.J. Page and R. Lesthaeghe. London: Academic Press.
Bongaarts, J., O. Frank, and R. Lesthaeghe. 1984. “The Proximate Determinants of Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Population and Development Review
Bongaarts, J. and R.G. Potter. 1983. Fertility, Biology, and Behavior: An Analysis of the Proximate Determinants. New York: Academic Press.
Brass, W. and H. Rashad. 1992. “Exploratory Demographic Analysis of Imperfect Maternity Histories to Determine Levels and Trends in Fertility.” Pp. 153–82 in The Analysis of Maternity Histories, edited by A.G. Hill and W. Brass. Liège: Derouaux-Ordina.
Caldwell, J.C. 1985. “Strengths and Limitations of the Survey Approach for Measuring and Understanding Fertility Change: Alternative Possibilities.” Pp. 45–63 in Reproductive Change in Developing Countries, edited by J. Cleland and J. Hobcraft. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Caldwell, J.C. and P. Caldwell. 1977. “The Role of Marital Sexual Abstinence in Determining Fertility: A Study of the Yoruba of Nigeria.” Population Studies
—. 1981. “Causes and Sequence in the Reduction of Postnatal Abstinence in Ibadan City, Nigeria.” Pp. 181–200 in Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change, edited by H.J. Page and R. Lesthaeghe. London: Academic Press.
—. 1987. “The Cultural Context of High Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Population and Development Review
—. 1990. “High Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Scientific American
Casterline, J.B., S. Singh, J. Cleland, and H. Ashurst. 1984. “The Proximate Determinants of Fertility.” WFS Comparative Studies No. 39, International Statistical Institute, Voorburgh.
Cleland, J.G., M.M. Ali, and V. Capo-Chichi. 1998. “Postpartum Sexual Abstinence in West Africa: Implications for AIDS-Control and Family Planning Programmes.” AIDS
Corsini, C. 1979. “Is the Fertility Reducing Effect of Lactation Really Substantial?” Pp. 195–215 in Natural Fertility: Patterns and Determinants of Natural Fertility: Proceedings of a Seminar on Natural Fertility, edited by H. Leridon and J. Menken. Liège: Ordina Editions.
Demographic Unit. 1987. “The Value of Children and Child Spacing Practices in Malawi: Report of a Workshop.” Demographic Unit, University of Malawi, Zomba. Unpublished report.
Diamond, I., J.W. McDonald, and I.H. Shah. 1986. “Proportional Hazards Models for Current Status Data: Applications to the Study of Differentials in Age at Weaning in Pakistan.” Demography
Gray, R.H. 1981. “Birth Intervals, Postpartum Sexual Abstinence and Child Health.” Pp. 93–110 in Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change, edited by H.J. Page and R. Lesthaeghe. London: Academic Press.
Greenhalgh, S. 1990. “Toward a Political Economy of Fertility: Anthropological Contributions.” Population and Development Review
Hammel, E.A. 1990. “A Theory of Culture for Demography.” Population and Development Review
Henry, L. 1961. “Some Data on Natural Fertility.” Eugenics Quarterly 8:81–91.
Jolly, C.L. and J.N. Gribble. 1993. “The Proximate Determinants of Fertility.” Pp. 68–116 in Demographic Change in Sub-Saharan Africa: Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by K.A. Foote, K.H. Hill, and L.G. Martin. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Kalbfleisch, J.D. and R.L. Prentice. 1980. The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data. New York: Wiley.
Lesthaeghe, R. 1989. “Production and Reproduction in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview of Organizing Principles.” Pp. 13–59 in Reproduction and Social Organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by R. Lesthaeghe. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lesthaeghe, R., P.O. Ohadike, J. Kocker, and H.P. Page. 1981. “Child Spacing and Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview of Issues.” Pp. 3–24 in Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change, edited by H.J. Page and R. Lesthaeghe. London: Academic Press.
Lockwood, M. 1995. “Structure and Behavior in the Social Demography of Africa.” Population and Development Review
Madise, N.J. 1993. “Birth Spacing in Malawi and Its Impact on Under-Five Mortality.” PhD dissertation, Department of Social Statistics, University of Southampton.
Malawi Government. 1994. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 1992. Calverton, MD: Macro International Inc.
—. 1997. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 1996. Calverton, MD: Macro International Inc.
Mhloyi, M.M. 1988. “The Determinants of Fertility in Africa Under Modernization.” Pp. 2.3.1–2.3.22 in African Population Conference 1988, Dakar-Senegal. Liège: Derouaux-Ordina.
Miller, K., E.M. Zulu, and S.C. Watkins. 2000. “Gender and Husband-Wife Survey Responses in Malawi.” Studies in Family Planning 32(4):161–74.
Nag, M. 1983. “The Impact of Sociocultural Factors on Breastfeeding and Sexual Behaviour.” Pp. 1–48 in The Determinants of Fertility in Developing Countries: Supply and Demand for Children, Vol. 1, edited by R. Bulatao and R.D. Lee. New York: Academic Press.
Orubuloye, I.O. 1979. “Sexual Abstinence Patterns in Rural Western Nigeria: Evidence From a Survey of Yoruba Men.” Social Science and Medicine 13A(6):667–72.
Page, H.J., B. Ferry, I.H. Shah, and R. Lesthaeghe. 1992. “The Most Recent Births: Some Analytical Possibilities and Underlying Problems.” Pp. 285–311 in The Analysis of Maternity Histories, edited by A.G. Hill and W. Brass. Liège: Derouaux-Ordina.
Santow, G. and M. Bracker. 1981. “Patterns of Postpartum Sexual Abstinence and Their Implications for Fertility in Ibadan, Nigeria.” Pp. 201–24 in Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change, edited by H.J. Page and R. Lesthaeghe. London: Academic Press.
Saucier, J.F. 1972. “Correlates of the Long Postpartum Taboo: A Cross-Cultural Study.” Current Anthropology
Schatz, E. 1999. “Does Women’s Position Matter? An Analysis of Contraceptive Use in Rural Malawi.” Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania. Unpublished manuscript.
Shoenmaeckers, R., I.H. Shah, R. Lesthaeghe, and O. Tambashe. 1981. “The Child-Spacing Tradition and the Postpartum Taboo in Tropical Africa: Anthropological Evidence.” Pp. 25–72 in Child-Spacing in Tropical Africa: Traditions and Change, edited by H.J. Page and R. Lesthaeghe. London: Academic Press.
Srivastava, M.L. and W. M’manga. 1991. “Traditional and Modern Methods of Child Spacing in Malawi: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice.” Survey report, Demographic Unit, University of Malawi, Zomba.
Tavrow, P. 1994. “Family Planning Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: Machinga District 1993.” Report on a baseline survey commissioned by the Machinga District Health Office and GTZ/Liwonde). Centre for Social Research, University of Malawi, Zomba.
van de Walle, E. and F. van de Walle. 1988. “Birthspacing and Abstinence in Sub-Saharan Africa.” International Family Planning Perspectives
Watkins, S.C. and E.M. Zulu. 2000. “Malawi Diffusion and Ideation Change Study.” Retrieved February 26, 2001 (http://soda.pop.upenn.edu/networks/mdic_homepage.htm).
Whiting, J.W.M. 1964. “Effects of Climate on Certain Cultural Practices.” Pp. 511–44 in Explorations in Cultural Anthropology, edited by W.H. Goodenough. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Zulu, E.M. 1996. “Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Reproductive Behavior in Malawi.” PhD dissertation, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania.
Zulu, E.M.. 1998. “The Role of Men and Women in Decision Making About Reproductive Issues in Malawi.” Working Paper 2, African Population Policy Research Center, Population Council, Nairobi.