, Volume 21, Issue 7, pp 2353-2360
Date: 07 Mar 2014

Comparison of Two Preoperative Inspiratory Muscle Training Programs to Prevent Pulmonary Complications in Patients Undergoing Esophagectomy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

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Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are the most commonly reported complications after esophagectomy. The aim of this study was to examine the effect and feasibility of preoperative inspiratory muscle training-high intensity (IMT-HI), and IMT-endurance (IMT-E) on the incidence of PPCs in patients following esophagectomy for esophageal cancer (EC).


A single-blind, randomized, clinical pilot study was conducted between 2009 and 2012. Forty-five participants were assigned to either IMT-HI or IMT-E. Effectiveness was assessed by analyzing PPCs, length of hospital stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation, stay on the intensive care unit, and number of reintubations. Maximal inspiratory pressure and lung function changes were recorded pre- and post-training. Feasibility was assessed by IMT-related adverse events, training compliance, and patients’ satisfaction.


Thirty-nine patients could be analyzed, 20 patients in the IMT-HI arm and 19 patients in the IMT-E arm. The incidence of PPCs differed significantly between groups and was almost three times lower for the IMT-HI group (4 vs. 11 patients; p = 0.015). Other differences in favor of the IMT-HI group were LOS (13.5 vs. 18 days; p = 0.010) and number of reintubations (0 vs. 4 patients; p = 0.030). Both interventions proved to be equally feasible.


Preoperative IMT-HI showed to be a promising, effective, and feasible intervention to reduce PPCs in EC patients undergoing esophagectomy. Further research with a larger sample size is recommended.

Trial Registration: ‘Nederlands Trial Register’ identification number: NTR2921 (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2921).