Adverse Effects of Smoking on Postoperative Outcomes in Cancer Patients
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The possible negative effects of smoking on postoperative outcomes have not been well studied in cancer patients.
We used the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) database for the years 2002–2008, which assesses preoperative risk factors and postoperative outcomes for patients undergoing major surgery within the VA healthcare system.
Compared with never smokers, prior smokers and current smokers with GI malignancies were significantly more likely to have surgical site infection (SSI) (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.09–1.44) (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.05–1.38), combined pulmonary complications (combined pulmonary outcome [CPO]: pneumonia, failure to wean from ventilator, reintubation) (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.38–1.87) (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.68–2.29), and return to the operating room (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03–1.39) (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.13–1.53), respectively. Both prior and current smokers had a significantly higher mortality at 30 days (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.19–1.89) (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.08–1.82) and 1 year (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08–1.38) (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.43–1.85). Thoracic surgery patients who were current smokers were more likely to develop CPO (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.25–2.11) and mortality within 1 year (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.17–1.92) compared with nonsmokers, but SSI rates were not affected by smoking status. Current smokers had a significant increase in postsurgical length of stay (overall 4.3% [P < .001], GI 4.7% [P = .003], thoracic 9.0% [P < .001]) compared with prior smokers.
Prior and current smoking status is a significant risk factor for major postoperative complications and mortality following GI cancer and thoracic operations in veterans. Smoking cessation should be encouraged prior to all major cancer surgery in the VA population to decrease postoperative complications and length of stay.
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- Adverse Effects of Smoking on Postoperative Outcomes in Cancer Patients
Annals of Surgical Oncology
Volume 19, Issue 5 , pp 1430-1438
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- 1. Department of Surgery, University of Colorado at Denver, Denver, CO, USA
- 2. The Center for Surgical, Medical Acute Care Research and Transitions (C-SMART), Birmingham Veterans Affairs Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA
- 3. Section of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
- 4. Colorado Health Outcomes, University of Colorado at Denver, Denver, CO, USA
- 5. Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
- 6. Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA
- 7. Center for Health Quality, Outcomes & Economic Research (CHQOER), Bedford VAMC, Bedford, MA, USA
- 8. UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA