, Volume 18, Issue 13, pp 3624-3631

Adjuvant Chemolipiodolization Reduces Early Recurrence Derived from Intrahepatic Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Hepatectomy

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The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma is still high even after surgery. Two general recurrence patterns occur: intrahepatic metastasis (IM) and multicentric carcinogenesis (MC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of adjuvant chemolipiodolization for reducing IM or MC recurrences after surgery.


A retrospective case-control study was carried out. From April 2005, adjuvant chemolipiodolization was performed in 63 initial hepatocellular carcinoma patients 3 months after surgery. Sixty-four patients who underwent surgery between April 2001 and March 2005 were analyzed as the control group. Recurrence-free and overall survival as well as prognostic factors were analyzed univariately and multivariately.


The 2-year recurrence-free survival was 57% in the chemolipiodolization group and 37% in the control group (P = 0.02). However, there was no significant difference at 5 years after surgery (P = 0.09). The 5-year overall survival rates in the chemolipiodolization and the control groups were 82.4 and 55.7%, respectively (P = 0.04). Cox proportional multivariate analysis revealed that adjuvant chemolipiodolization was an independent favorable prognostic factor for 2-year recurrence-free survival, and the odds ratio [95% confidential interval] was 0.55 [0.34–0.90] (P = 0.02). However, adjuvant chemolipiodolization was not an independent favorable prognostic factor for 5-year overall survival.


Adjuvant chemolipiodolization can reduce the risk of early recurrences, which would be mainly IM derived. However, chemolipiodolization did not reduce late phase recurrences after surgery, which would be mainly MC derived. To prevent late phase recurrences, another novel strategy would be needed.