, Volume 16, Issue 10, pp 2943-2952
Date: 07 Jul 2009

The FLARE Intraoperative Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging System: A First-in-Human Clinical Trial in Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping

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Invisible NIR fluorescent light can provide high sensitivity, high-resolution, and real-time image-guidance during oncologic surgery, but imaging systems that are presently available do not display this invisible light in the context of surgical anatomy. The FLARE imaging system overcomes this major obstacle.


Color video was acquired simultaneously, and in real-time, along with two independent channels of NIR fluorescence. Grayscale NIR fluorescence images were converted to visible “pseudo-colors” and overlaid onto the color video image. Yorkshire pigs weighing 35 kg (n = 5) were used for final preclinical validation of the imaging system. A six-patient pilot study was conducted in women undergoing sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping for breast cancer. Subjects received 99mTc-sulfur colloid lymphoscintigraphy. In addition, 12.5 μg of indocyanine green (ICG) diluted in human serum albumin (HSA) was used as an NIR fluorescent lymphatic tracer.


The FLARE system permitted facile positioning in the operating room. NIR light did not change the look of the surgical field. Simultaneous pan-lymphatic and SLN mapping was demonstrated in swine using clinically available NIR fluorophores and the dual NIR capabilities of the system. In the pilot clinical trial, a total of nine SLNs were identified by 99mTc- lymphoscintigraphy and nine SLNs were identified by NIR fluorescence, although results differed in two patients. No adverse events were encountered.


We describe the successful clinical translation of a new NIR fluorescence imaging system for image-guided oncologic surgery.