Article

Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 1735-1743

First online:

Carcinoid of the Rectum Risk Stratification (CaRRs): A Strategy for Preoperative Outcome Assessment

  • Bridget N. FahyAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, Division of Colorectal Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
  • , Laura H. TangAffiliated withDepartment of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
  • , David KlimstraAffiliated withDepartment of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
  • , W. Douglas WongAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, Division of Colorectal Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
  • , Jose G. GuillemAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, Division of Colorectal Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
  • , Philip B. PatyAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, Division of Colorectal Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
  • , Larissa K. F. TempleAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, Division of Colorectal Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
  • , Jinru ShiaAffiliated withDepartment of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
  • , Martin R. WeiserAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, Division of Colorectal Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Email author 

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Abstract

Background

Predicting rectal carcinoid behavior based exclusively on tumor size is imprecise. We sought to identify factors associated with outcome and incorporate them into a pre-operative risk stratification scheme.

Methods

Seventy rectal carcinoid patients evaluated at our institution were identified. Demographic, clinical, and histopathologic data were collected and correlated with recurrence and survival.

Results

The mean age of our cohort was 53.6 years. Fifty-seven percent of patients were female. The mean tumor size was 1.3 cm (range: 0.1–5 cm). Twenty-five percent of patients had deeply invasive tumors (into the muscularis propria or deeper); an equal percentage had tumors with lymphovascular invasion (LVI) or an elevated mitotic rate (≥2/50 HPF). Eleven patients (17%) had distant metastases at presentation. Sixty-one patients were followed for a median of 22 months (2–308 months), during which seven patients developed recurrence and seven died of disease (2/7 who developed recurrence). Poor outcome was associated with large tumor size, deep invasion, presence of LVI, and elevated mitotic rate. These factors were incorporated into a carcinoid of the rectum risk stratification (CaRRS) score. CaRRS predicted recurrence-free and disease-specific survival better than any single factor alone.

Conclusions

Poor prognostic features of rectal carcinoids include: large size, deep invasion, LVI, and elevated mitotic rate. The CaRRS score incorporates these features and accurately predicts outcome. Because the CaRRS score is based upon values available on pre-operative biopsy, it can identify patients with very favorable prognosis as well as those with poor prognosis that may benefit from additional staging or surveillance.

Keywords

Carcinoid Rectum Outcome Risk assessment