AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 1087–1101

Brimonidine Tartrate–Eudragit Long-Acting Nanoparticles: Formulation, Optimization, In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

Research Article

DOI: 10.1208/s12249-011-9675-1

Cite this article as:
Bhagav, P., Upadhyay, H. & Chandran, S. AAPS PharmSciTech (2011) 12: 1087. doi:10.1208/s12249-011-9675-1


In the present study, an effort was made to design prolonged release Eudragit nanoparticles of brimonidine tartrate by double emulsion–solvent evaporation technique for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. The effect of various formulation variables like initial drug amount, lecithin proportion, phase volume and pH, secondary emulsifier and polymer proportion were studied. Various process variables like energy and duration of emulsification, lyophilization on the characteristics of nanoparticles and in vitro drug release profile were studied. The selected formulations were subjected to in vivo intraocular pressure-lowering efficacy studies by administering aqueous dispersion of nanoparticles into the lower cul de sac of glaucomatous rabbits. The prepared Eudragit-based nanoparticles were found to have narrow particle size range and improved drug loading. The investigated process and formulation variables found to have significant effect on the particle size, drug loading and entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release profile of nanoparticles. The selected formulations upon in vivo ocular irritability and tolerability tests were found to be well tolerated with no signs of irritation. In vivo pharmacodynamic efficacy studies revealed that the selected nanoparticle formulations significantly improved the therapy as area under the ∆IOP vs. time curve [AUC(∆IOP vs.t)] showed several fold increase in intensity and duration of intraocular pressure (IOP) decrease. All the selected nanoparticle formulations were found to prolong the drug release in vitro and prolong IOP reduction efficacy in vivo, thus rendering them as a potential carrier in developing improved drug delivery systems for the treatment of glaucoma.


brimonidine tartrateEudragitglaucomaintraocular pressurenanoparticles

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prakash Bhagav
    • 1
  • Hariom Upadhyay
    • 1
  • Sajeev Chandran
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Formulation Development and Pharmacokinetics Laboratory, Pharmacy GroupBirla Institute of Technology and SciencePilaniIndia
  2. 2.Advanced Drug Delivery Systems R&D, Pharmaceutical R&D, Lupin Research ParkPuneIndia