, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 235-242
Date: 12 Mar 2009

Quercetin/β-Cyclodextrin Solid Complexes Prepared in Aqueous Solution Followed by Spray-drying or by Physical Mixture

Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the influence of operating conditions (temperature, stirring time, and excess amount of quercetin) on the complexation of quercetin with β-cyclodextrin using a 23 factorial design. The highest aqueous solubility of quercetin was reached under the conditions 37°C/24 h/6 mM of quercetin. The stoichiometric ratio (1:1) and the apparent stability constant (Ks = 230 M−1) of the quercetin/β-cyclodextrin complex were determined using phase-solubility diagrams. The semi-industrial production of a 1:1 quercetin/β-cyclodextrin solid complex was carried out in aqueous solution followed by spray-drying. Although the yield of the spray-drying process was adequate (77%), the solid complex presented low concentration of quercetin (0.14%, w/w) and, thus, low complexation efficiency. The enhancement of aqueous solubility of quercetin using this method was limited to 4.6-fold in the presence of 15 mM of β-cyclodextrin. Subsequently, an inclusion complex was prepared via physical mixture of quercetin with β-cyclodextrin (molar ratio of 1:1 and quercetin concentration of 23% (w/w)) and characterized using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The enhancement of aqueous solubility of quercetin using this method was 2.2-fold, similar to that found in the complex prepared in aqueous solution before the spray-drying process (2.5-fold at a molar ratio of 1:1, i.e., 6 mM of quercetin and 6 mM of β-cyclodextrin).