Review Article

AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 798-809

First online:

Conventional and Dense Gas Techniques for the Production of Liposomes: A Review

  • Louise A. MeureAffiliated withSchool of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, The University of New South Wales
  • , Neil R. FosterAffiliated withSchool of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, The University of New South Wales
  • , Fariba DehghaniAffiliated withSchool of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Sydney Email author 


The aim of this review paper is to compare the potential of various techniques developed for production of homogenous, stable liposomes. Traditional techniques, such as Bangham, detergent depletion, ether/ethanol injection, reverse-phase evaporation and emulsion methods, were compared with the recent advanced techniques developed for liposome formation. The major hurdles for scaling up the traditional methods are the consumption of large quantities of volatile organic solvent, the stability and homogeneity of the liposomal product, as well as the lengthy multiple steps involved. The new methods have been designed to alleviate the current issues for liposome formulation. Dense gas liposome techniques are still in their infancy, however they have remarkable advantages in reducing the use of organic solvents, providing fast, single-stage production and producing stable, uniform liposomes. Techniques such as the membrane contactor and heating methods are also promising as they eliminate the use of organic solvent, however high temperature is still required for processing.

Key words

dense gas technology drug delivery liposomes nano-particles phospholipid