Review Article Theme: Natural Products Drug Discovery in Cancer Prevention

The AAPS Journal

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 951-961

First online:

Phytochemicals from Cruciferous Vegetables, Epigenetics, and Prostate Cancer Prevention

  • Gregory W. WatsonAffiliated withMolecular and Cellular Biology, Oregon State UniversityLinus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University
  • , Laura M. BeaverAffiliated withLinus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University
  • , David E. WilliamsAffiliated withLinus Pauling Institute, Oregon State UniversityEnvironmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University
  • , Roderick H. DashwoodAffiliated withLinus Pauling Institute, Oregon State UniversityEnvironmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University
  • , Emily HoAffiliated withLinus Pauling Institute, Oregon State UniversityBiological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University Email author 

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with cruciferous vegetable intake. Follow-up studies have attributed this protective activity to the metabolic products of glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites produced by crucifers. The metabolic products of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, sulforaphane, and indole-3-carbinol respectively, have been the subject of intense investigation by cancer researchers. Sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol inhibit prostate cancer by both blocking initiation and suppressing prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. Research has largely focused on the anti-initiation and cytoprotective effects of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol through induction of phases I and II detoxification pathways. With regards to suppressive activity, research has focused on the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol to antagonize cell signaling pathways known to be dysregulated in prostate cancer. Recent investigations have characterized the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol derivatives to modulate the activity of enzymes controlling the epigenetic status of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we will summarize the well-established, “classic” non-epigenetic targets of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, and highlight more recent evidence supporting these phytochemicals as epigenetic modulators for prostate cancer chemoprevention.

KEY WORDS

epigenetic I3C prostate cancer sulforaphane