, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 456-461
Date: 18 Apr 2012

Pain Assessment in Human Fetus and Infants


In humans, painful stimuli can arrive to the brain at 20–22 weeks of gestation. Therefore several researchers have devoted their efforts to study fetal analgesia during prenatal surgery, and during painful procedures in premature babies. Aim of this paper is to gather from scientific literature the available data on the signals that the human fetus and newborns produce, and that can be interpreted as signals of pain. Several signs can be interpreted as signals of pain. We will describe them in the text. In infants, these signs can be combined to create specific and sensible pain assessment tools, called pain scales, used to rate the level of pain.

Guest Editor: Marilyn Martinez