, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 25-42

Evolutionary relationships among G protein-coupled receptors using a clustered database approach

Abstract

Guanine nucleotide-binding proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise large and diverse gene families in fungi, plants, and the animal kingdom. GPCRs appear to share a common structure with 7 transmembrane segments, but sequence similarity is minimal among the most distant GPCRs. To reevaluate the question of evolutionary relationships among the disparate GPCR families, this study takes advantage of the dramatically increased number of cloned GPCRs. Sequences were selected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nonredundant peptide database using iterative BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) searches to yield a database of ∼1700 GPCRs and unrelated membrane proteins as controls, divided into 34 distinet clusters. For each cluster, separate position-specific matrices were established to optimize sequence comparisons among GPCRs. This approach resulted in significant alignments between distant GPCR families, including receptors for the biogenic amine/peptide, VIP/secretin, cAMP, STE3/MAP3 fungal pheromones, latrophilin, developmental receptors frizzled and smoothened, as well as the more distant metabotrobic glutamate receptors, the STE2/MAM2 fungal pheromone receptors, and GPR1, a fungal glucose receptor. On the other hand, alignment scores between these recognized GPCR clades with p40 (putative GPCR) and pml (putative GPCR), as well as bacteriorhodopsins, failed to support a finding of homology. This study provides a refined view of GPCR ancestry and serves as a reference database with hyperlinks to other sources. Moreover, it may facilitate database annotation and the assignment of orphan receptors to GPCR families.

Published: May 4, 2001