, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 310-319

Motivational versus social cognitive interventions for promoting fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in African American Adolescents

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Abstract

Strategic self-presentation (motivational intervention [MI]) is a theoretical approach that is distinct from social cognitive theory (SCT). Specifically, strategic self-presentation involves increasing motivation by creating cognitive dissonance and inducing shifts in self-concept by generating positive coping strategies during a videotaped session. Fifty-three healthy African American adolescents were randomized to a SCT + MI, SCT-only, or an education-only group for increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and physical activity. The SCT + MI and SCT-only groups received a 12-week SCT program. Students in the SCT+ MI group also participated in a strategic self-presentation videotape session. Participantscompleted3-dayfoodrecords, completedmeasures of self-concept and self-efficacy, and wore an activity monitor for 4 days atpre-and posttreatment. Both the SCT+MI (2.6 ± 1.4vs. 5.7 ± 2.2, p<. 05) andthe SCT-only (2.5 ± 1.2 vs. 4.8 ± 2.4, p <. 05) groups showed greater increases in F&V intake from pre-to posttreatment as compared with the education-only group (2.3 ± 1.0, vs. 3.3 ± 2.1, p > .05). There were no significant time or group effects for any of the physical activity measures. Correlation analyses revealed that only the SCT + MI group showed that dietary self-concept (r = .58,r = .67,p<.05) and dietary self-efficacy (r = .65, r = .85, p < .05) were significantly correlated with posttreatment F&V intake and change in F&V intake, respectively. These findings suggest that the change in F&V intake in the SCT + MI group resulted from strategic self-presentation, which induced positive shifts in self-concept and self-efficacy.

This project was supported by a National Kidney Foundation Virginia State Affiliate Grant to Dawn K. Wilson and by GCRC Grant M01RR00065 at Virginia Commonwealth University.