American College of Sports Medicine. (2000). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (6th ed.). Philadelphia:
American College of Sports Medicine, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (1999). Australia’s health. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Services.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise and control. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Banville, D., Desrosiers, P., & Genet-Volet, Y. (2000). Translating questionnaires and inventories using a cross-cultural translation technique. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 19, 374–387.
Blair, S. N., & Brodney, S. (1999). Effects of physical inactivity and obesity on mortality and morbidity: Current evidence and research issues. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 31
Buckworth, J., & Wallace, L. S. (2002). Application of the transtheoretical model to physically active adults. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42
Calfas, K. J., & Taylor, W. C. (1994). Effect of physical activity on psychological variables in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 28, 2274–2290.
Callaghan, P., Eves, F. F., Norman, P., Chang, A. M., & Lung, C. Y. (2002). Applying the transtheoretical model of change to exercise in young Chinese people. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7
Cardinal, B. J. (2004). Facilitating physical activity behavior change among older adults. Contemporary Psychology, 49, 15–17.
Cardinal, B. J., Kosma, M., & McCubbin, J. A. (2004). Factor influencing the exercise behavior of adults with physical disabilities. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36
Cardinal, B. J., Tuominen, K. J., & Rintala, P. (2004). Cross-cultural comparison of American and Finnish college students’ exercise behavior using transtheoretical model constructs. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75
Dishman, R. (1982). Compliance/adherence in health-related exercise. Health Psychology, 1
Fallon, E. A., Hausenblas, H. A., & Nigg, C. R. (2005). The transtheoretical model and exercise adherence: Examining construct associations in later stages of change. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 1–13.
Glanz, K., Lewis, F. M., & Rimer, B. K. (1997). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gorely, T., & Gordon, S. (1995). An examination of the transtheoretical model and exercise behavior in older adults. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 312–324.
Janis, I. I., & Mann, L. (1977). Decision making: A psychological analysis of conflict, choice and commitment, New York: Free Press.
Jones, D. A., Ainsworth, B. E., & Croft, J. B. (1998). Moderate leisure-time activity: Who is meeting the public health recommendations? A national cross-sectional study. Archive Family Medicine, 7
Kim, B. J., & Seong, C. H. (1996). Fun as a motivational factor for participating in sport: Concept and the related studies. Korea Journal of Sport Education, 3, 99–122.
Kim, Y. H. (2001). Korean adolescents’ health risk behaviors and their relationships with the selected psychological constructs. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29
Kim, Y. H. (2002). Adolescents’ stages of change, decision balance, self-efficacy in exercise: Application of transtheoretical model. Korean Journal of Sports Psychology, 13, 1–19.
Kim, Y. H. (2003). Relationships of stages of exercise behavior with processes of change. Korean Journal of Sports Psychology, 14, 65–80.
Korea Ministry of Culture and Tourism. (2000). The participation pattern of physical activity: National-wide survey. Seoul: Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
Kosma, M., Cardinal, B. J., & McCubbin, J. A. (2004). Predictors of physicalactivity stageofchange amongadults withphysical disabilities. American Journal of Health Promotion, 19
Lee, J. G. (2001). Analysis on the types and determinants of fun in sport participation among adolescents. Korea Journal of Sport Sociology, 14, 37–54.
Lee, P. S., Kim, S. I., Chun, Y. J., Kim, S. Y., Lee, E. S., & Chung, S. O. (1999). Prediction model for decisional balance, self-efficacy for exercise and stage of change of exercise in the Korean elderly. Journal of Korean Psychiatric Nursing, 8, 280–290.
Leenders, N. Y. J. M., Silver, L. W., White, S. L., Buckworth, J., & Sherman, W. M. (2002). Assessment of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and stages of change in college students using a street-based survey method. American Journal of Health Education, 33, 199–205.
Marcus, B. H., Eaton, C., Rossi, J. S., & Harlow, L. (1994). Self-efficacy, decision-making and stages of change: An integrative model of physical exercise. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24
Marcus, B. H., Pinto, B. M., Simkin, L. R., Audrain, J. E., & Taylor, E. R.(1994). Application of theoretical models to exercise behavior among employed women. American Journal of Health Promotion, 9
Marcus, B. H., Selby, V. C., Niaura, R. S., & Rossi, J. S. (1992). Self-efficacy and the stage of exercise behavior change. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 63
Marshall, S. J., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2001). The transtheoretical model of behavior change: A meta-analysis of applications. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23
Napolitano, M. A., & Marcus, B. H. (2002). Targeting and tailoring physical activity information using print and information technologies. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 30
Nigg, C. R., & Courneya, K. S. (1998). Transtheoretical model: Examining adolescent exercise behavior.Journal of Adolescent Health, 22
Nigg, C. R., Norman, G. J., Rossi, J. S., & Benisovich, S. V. (1999). Processes of exercise behavior change: Redeveloping the scale. Poster presented at the Society of Behavioral Medicine Meeting, San Diego, CA.
Nigg, C. R. & Riebe, D. (2002). The transtheoretical model: Research review of exercise behavior and older adults. In P. M. Burbank and D. Riebe (Eds.), Promoting exercise and behavior change in older adults: Interventions with the transtheoretical model (pp 147–180). New York: Springer.
Nishimura, Y., & Chikamoto, Y. (2005). Health promotion in Japan: Comparison with U.S. perspectives. American Journal of Health Promotion, 19
Oldridge, N. (1988). Compliance with exercise in cardiac rehabilitation. In R. Dishman (Ed.), Exercise adherence: Its impact on public health (pp. 283–304). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Patrick, D. L., Cheadle, A., Thompson, D. C., Dier, P., Kospsell, T., & Klinne, S. (1994). The validity of self-reported smoking: A review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 84
Plotnikoff, R. C., Blanchard, C., Hotz, S. B., & Rhodes, R. (2001). Validation of the decisional balance scales in the exercise domain from the transtheoretical model: A longitudinal test. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 5
Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1983). Stage and processes of self change of smoking: Toward and integrative model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51
Prochaska, J. O., & Marcus, B. H. (1993). The transtheoretical model: Applications to exercise. In R. K. Dishman (Ed.), Advances in exercise adherence (pp. 161–180). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Reed, G. R. (1999). Adherence to exercise and the transtheoretical model of behavior change. In S. J. Bull (Ed.), Adherence issues in sport and exercise (pp. 19–46). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
Ronda, G., Assema, P. V., & Brug, J. (2001). Stage of change, psychological factors and awareness of physical activity levels in the Netherlands. Health Promotion International, 16
Tseng, Y. H., Jaw, S. P., Lin, T. L., & Ho, C. C. (2003). Exercise motivation and processes of change in community-dwelling older persons. Journal of Nursing Research, 11
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Physical activity and health: A report and surgeon general. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Velicer, W. F., Prochaska, J. D., Rossi, J. S., & Snow, M. (2001). Assessing outcome in smoking cessation studies. Psychological Bulletin, 111
Yi, K. O. (1996). The analysis of energy consumption based on survey of female college students on their physical activities and leisure. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 35, 89–99.