Diagnosis of hypertension and high blood pressure levels negatively affect cognitive function in older adults
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
bdBackground: Hypertension is associated with diminished performance on tests of cognitive function. The degree to which those diagnosed with hypertension have controlled blood pressure (BP) levels may be a critical determinant of cognitive outcomes. Persons with hypertension and poorly controlled BP are likely to display the worst performance on cognitive tests.Purpose: The purpose is to examine potential interactive relations of hypertension diagnostic status and current BP levels to cognitive function.Methods: Participants were 101 healthy older adults (ages 53–84, 62% male, 90% White, 29% diagnosed with hypertension) who engaged in biomedical and neuropsychological assessment.Results: After statistical adjustment for age and education, persons with high BP performed more poorly than those with normal BP on the Visual Reproductions—Immediate and Delayed Recall and the Grooved Pegboard tests. Diagnosed hypertension was related to poorer performance on the Grooved Pegboard tests. An interaction of diagnosed hypertension and BP level revealed that those diagnosed with hypertension and also having poorly controlled BP levels performed least well on the Grooved Pegboard tests and the Trail Making Test-Part A.Conclusion: Irrespective of prior diagnostic status, individuals with high BP displayed compromised performance on tests of nonverbal memory, motor speed, and manual dexterity. However, as compared to the other groups, those diagnosed with hypertension and also having poorly controlled BP elevation were most vulnerable to difficulties on tests of perceptuo-motor speed, motor speed, and manual dexterity. These findings suggest the need for increased attention to preventative efforts with respect to BP assessment and control in older adults to help preserve cognitive function.
- National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group: National high blood pressure education program working group report on hypertension in the elderly.Hypertension. 1994,23:275–285.
- Neaton JD, Wentworth DN, Cutler J, Stamler J, Kuller L: Risk factors for death from different types of stroke. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group.Annals of Epidemiology. 1993,3:493–499. CrossRef
- Meyer JS, Rauch GM, Rauch RA, Anwarul H, Crawford K: Cardiovascular and other risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2000,903:411–423. CrossRef
- Lande MB, Kaczorowski JM, Auinger P, Schwartz GJ, Weitzman M: Elevated blood pressure and decreased cognitive function among school-age children and adolescents in the United States.Journal of Pediatrics. 2003,143:699–700. CrossRef
- Elias MF, Wolf PA, D’Agostino RB, Cobb J, White LR: Untreated blood pressure level is inversely related to cognitive functioning: The Framingham Study.American Journal of Epidemiology. 1993,138:353–364.
- Robbins MA, Elias MF, Croog SH, Colton T: Unmedicated blood pressure levels and quality of life in elderly hypertensive women.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1994,56:251–259.
- Waldstein SR, Manuck SB, Ryan CM, Muldoon MF: Neuropsychological correlates of hypertension: Review and methodologic considerations.Psychological Bulletin. 1991,110:451–468. CrossRef
- Waldstein SR, Katzel LI: Hypertension and cognitive function. In Waldstein SR, Elias MF (eds),Neuropsychology of Cardiovascular Disease. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2001, 15–36.
- Wallace RB, Lemke JH, Morris MC, et al.: Relationship of free-recall memory to hypertension in the elderly: The Iowa 65+ rural health study.Journal of Chronic Disease. 1985,38:475–481. CrossRef
- Harrington F, Saxby BK, McKeith IG, Wesnes K, Ford GA: Cognitive performance in hypertensive and normotensive older subjects.Hypertension. 2000,36:1079–1082.
- Elias MF, Robbins MA, Elias PK, Streeten DHP: A longitudinal study of blood pressure in relation to performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.Health Psychology. 1998,17:486–493. CrossRef
- Waldstein SR: Health effects on cognitive aging. In Stern PC, Carstensen LL (eds),The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000, 189–217.
- American Heart Association:Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics: 2003 Update. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association, 2002.
- Elias MF, Schultz NR, Robbins MA, Elias PK: A longitudinal study of neuropsychological performance by hypertensives and normotensives: A third measurement point.Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences.1990,44:25–28.
- Boller F, Vrtunski B, Mack JL, Kim Y: Neuropsychological correlates of hypertension.Archives of Neurology. 1977,34:701–705.
- Franceschi M, Tancredi O, Smirne S, Mercinelli A, Canal N: Cognitive processes in hypertension.Hypertension. 1982,4:226–229.
- Waldstein SR, Ryan CM, Manuck SB, Parkinson DK, Bromet EJ: Learning and memory function in men with untreated blood pressure elevation.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1991,59:513–517. CrossRef
- Miller RE, Shapiro AP, King HE, Ginchereau EH, Hosutt JA: Effect of antihypertensive treatment on the behavioral consequences of elevated blood pressure.Hypertension. 1984,6:202–208.
- Tzourio C, Dufouil C, Ducimetiere P, Alperovitch A: Cognitive decline in individuals with high blood pressure.Neurology. 1999,53:1948–1952.
- Amenta F, Mignini F, Rabbia F, Tomassoni D, Veglio F: Protective effect of anti-hypertensive treatment on cognitive function in essential hypertension: Analysis of published clinical data.Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2002,203–204:147–151. CrossRef
- Alves de Moraes S, Szklo M, Knopman D, Sato R: The relationship between temporal changes in blood pressure and changes in cognitive function: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.Preventive Medicine.2002,35:258–263. CrossRef
- Jonas DL, Blumenthal JA, Madden DJ, Serra M: Cognitive consequences of antihypertensive medications. In Waldstein SR, Elias MF (eds),Neuropsychology of Cardiovascular Disease. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2001, 167–188.
- Muldoon MF, Waldstein SR, Jennings JR: Neuropsychological consequences of antihypertensive medications.Experimental Aging Research. 1995,21:353–368. CrossRef
- Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al.: The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 report.Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003,289:2560–2572. CrossRef
- Wechsler D:Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Manual. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1981.
- Wechsler D:Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Manual. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1987.
- Reitan RM:Trail Making Test: Manual for Administration and Scoring. Tucson, AZ: Reitan Neuropsychology Press, 1992.
- Golden JC:Stroop Color and Word Test. Chicago: Stoelting, 1978.
- Rourke BP, Yanni DW, MacDonald GW, Young GC: Neuropsychological significance of lateralized deficits on the Grooved Pegboard Test for older children with learning disabilities.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1973,41:128–134. CrossRef
- Benton AL, Hannay HJ, Varney NR: Visual perception of line direction in patients with unilateral brain damage.Neurology. 1975,25:907–910.
- Beck AT:Beck Depression Inventory: Manual. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1987.
- Spielberger CD:Preliminary Manual for the State-Trait Personality Inventory. Tampa: University of South Florida, 1979.
- Waldstein SR, Ryan CM, Polefrone JM, Manuck SB: Neuropsychological performance of young men who vary in familial risk for hypertension.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1994,56:449–456.
- Pierce TW, Elias MF: Cognitive function and cardiovascular responsivity in subjects with a parental history of hypertension.Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 1993,16:277–294. CrossRef
- Thyrum ET, Blumenthal JA, Madden DJ, Siegel W: Family history of hypertension influences neurobehavioral function in hypertensive patients.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1994,57:496–500.
- Gunning-Dixon FM, Raz N: The cognitive correlates of white matter abnormalities in normal aging: A quantitative review.Neuropsychology. 2000,14:224–232. CrossRef
- Waldstein SR, Tankard CF, Maier KJ, et al.: Peripheral arterial disease and cognitive function.Psychosomatic Medicine. 2003,65:757–776. CrossRef
- Diagnosis of hypertension and high blood pressure levels negatively affect cognitive function in older adults
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume 29, Issue 3 , pp 174-180
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. University of Maryland, Baltimore County
- 2. University of Maryland School of Medicine; Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA