Shephard RJ:Aging, Physical Activity, and Health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1997.
Cohen RA, van Nostrand JF: Trends in the health of older Americans: United States, 1994.National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Health Statistics. 1995,3:3–7.
Hoffman C, Rice D, Sung H: Persons with chronic conditions: Their prevalence and costs. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1996,276
Shephard RJ: Exercise and aging: Extending independence for older adults.Geriatrics
Fiatarone MA, O’Neill EF, Ryan ND, et al.: Exercise training and nutritional supplements for physical frailty in very elderly people.New England Journal of Medicine
Larson EB: Exercise, functional decline, and frailty.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Province ME, Hadley EC, Hornbrook MC, et al.: The effects of exercise on falls in elderly patients: A preplanned meta-analysis of the FICSIT Trials.Journal of the American Medical Association
Tinetti ME, Baker DI, McAvay G, et al.: A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community.New England Journal of Medicine
Kutner NG, Schectman KB, Ory MG, et al.: Older adults’ perceptions of their health and functioning in relation to sleep disturbance, falling and urinary incontinence.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Mor V, Wilcox V, Rakowske W, Hiris J: Functional transitions among the elderly: Patterns, predictors and related hospital use.American Journal of Public Health
Penninx BWJH, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, et al.: Depressive symptoms and physical function decline in community-dwelling older persons.Journal of the American Medical Association
Tinetti ME, Inouye SK, Gill TM, et al.: Shared risk factors for falls, incontinence and functional dependence: Unifying the approach to geriatric syndromes.Journal of the American Medical Association
Bouchard C, Shephard RJ, Stephens T: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health: International Proceedings and Consensus Statement. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1994.
Buchner DM, Beresford SAA, Larson EB, LaCroix AZ, Wagner EH: Effects of physical activity on health status in older adults II: Intervention studies.Annual Review of Public Health
McAuley E, Katula J: Physical activity interventions in the elderly:Influence on physical health and psychological function. In Schulz R, Lawton MP, Maddox G (eds), Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics. New York: Springer, 1998, 115–154.
McAuley E, Rudolph DL: Physical activity, aging, and psychological well-being.Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 1995,3:67–96.
Tse S, Bailey DM: T’ai Chi and postural control in the well elderly.American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 1991,29:263–288.
Wolf LS, Barnhart HX, Kutner NG, et al.: Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: An investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Lan C, Chen SY, Lai JS, et al.: The effect of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory function in patients with coronary artery bypass surgery.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Young DR, Appel LJ, Jee SH, Miller ER: The effects of aerobic exercise and T’ai Chi on blood pressure in older people: Results of a randomized trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1999,47
Kutner NG, Barnhart H, Wolf SL, McNeely E, Xu T: Self-report benefits of Tai Chi practice by older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Science. 1997,52B:242–246.
Levandoski LJ, Leyshon GA: Tai Chi exercise and elderly.Clinical Kinesiology. 1990,44:39–42.
Wolfson L, Whipple R, Derby C, et al.: Balance and strength training in older adults: Intervention gains and Tai Chi maintenance. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1996,44
Washburn RA, Smith KW, Jette AM, Janney CA: The physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE): Development and evaluation.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Yan JH, Downing JH: Tai Chi: An alternative exercise form for seniors.Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 1998,6:350–362.
Wolf SL, Kutner NG, Green RC, McNeely E: The Atlanta FICSIT study: Two exercise interventions to reduce frailty in elders.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Stewart AL, Hays RD, Ware JE: The MOS Short-Form General Health Survey-reliability and validity in a patient population.Medical Care
Zeger SL, Liang KY: Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes.Biometrics
SAS Institute:SAS/STAT Software: Changes and Enhancements Through Release 6.12. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc., 1990.
Stewart AL, King AC, Haskell WL: Endurance exercise and health-related quality of life outcomes in 50–65 year old adults.Gerontologist
Hurley BF, Hagberg JM: Optimizing health in older persons: Aerobic or strength training. In Holloszy J (ed.),Exercise and Sport Science Review. New York: Williams & Wilkins, 1998, 61–89.
Vertinsky P: Old age, gender and physical activity: The biomedicalization of aging.Journal of Sport History. 1991,18:64–80.
Atchley RC, Scala MA: Long-range antecedents of functional capability in later life.Journal of Aging and Health
Rogers RG, Rogers A, Belanger A: Disability-free life among the elderly in the United States.Journal of Aging and Health
Blair SN, Garcia ME: Get up and move: A call to action for older men and women.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Dishman RK:Exercise Adherence: Its Impact on Public Health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1988.
Ecclestone NA, Myers AM, Paterson DH: Tracking older participants of twelve physical activity classes over a three-year period. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 1998,6:70–82.