Principal components analysis based control of a multi-dof underactuated prosthetic hand
Functionality, controllability and cosmetics are the key issues to be addressed in order to accomplish a successful functional substitution of the human hand by means of a prosthesis. Not only the prosthesis should duplicate the human hand in shape, functionality, sensorization, perception and sense of body-belonging, but it should also be controlled as the natural one, in the most intuitive and undemanding way. At present, prosthetic hands are controlled by means of non-invasive interfaces based on electromyography (EMG). Driving a multi degrees of freedom (DoF) hand for achieving hand dexterity implies to selectively modulate many different EMG signals in order to make each joint move independently, and this could require significant cognitive effort to the user.
A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) based algorithm is used to drive a 16 DoFs underactuated prosthetic hand prototype (called CyberHand) with a two dimensional control input, in order to perform the three prehensile forms mostly used in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs). Such Principal Components set has been derived directly from the artificial hand by collecting its sensory data while performing 50 different grasps, and subsequently used for control.
Trials have shown that two independent input signals can be successfully used to control the posture of a real robotic hand and that correct grasps (in terms of involved fingers, stability and posture) may be achieved.
This work demonstrates the effectiveness of a bio-inspired system successfully conjugating the advantages of an underactuated, anthropomorphic hand with a PCA-based control strategy, and opens up promising possibilities for the development of an intuitively controllable hand prosthesis.
- Biagiotti L, Lotti F, Melchiorri C, Vassura G: Design aspects for advanced robot hands. Tutorial: Towards intelligent robotic manipulation, IEEE Intl Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems 2002.
- Bicchi A: Hands for dexterous manipulation and robust grasping: a difficult road towards simplicity. IEEE Trans Rob Aut 2000,16(6):652–662. CrossRef
- Carrozza MC, Cappiello G, Micera S, Edin BB, Beccai L, Cipriani C: Design of a cybernetic hand for perception and action. Biol Cyb 2006,95(6):629–644. CrossRef
- OttoBock HealthCare Duderstdat, DE [http://www.ottobock.com]
- Motion Control Inc Salt Lake City, UT [http://utaharm.com]
- Liberating Technologies Inc Holliston, MA [http://www.liberatingtech.com]
- Carrozza MC, Massa B, Micera S, Lazzarini R, Zecca M, Dario P: The development of a novel prosthetic hand - ongoing research and preliminary results. IEEE/ASME Trans Mechatronics 2002,7(2):108–114. CrossRef
- Zecca M, Micera S, Carrozza MC, Dario P: Control of multifunctional prosthetic hands by processing the electromyographic signal. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 2002,30(4–6):459–485. CrossRef
- Parker P, Englehart K, Hudgins B: Myoelectric signal processing for control of powered limb prostheses. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2006, 16:541–548. CrossRef
- Kyberd PJ, Holland OE, Chappel PH, Smith S, Tregdigo R, Bagwell PJ, Snaith M: Marcus: a two degree of freedom hand prosthesis with hierarchical grip control. IEEE Trans Rehab Eng 1995,3(1):70–76. CrossRef
- Touch EMAS Ltd Edinburgh, UK [http://www.touchbionics.com]
- Craelius W: The bionic man: restoring mobility. Science 2002, 295:1018–1021. CrossRef
- Light CM, Chappell PH: Development of a lightweight and adaptable multiple-axis hand prosthesis. Med Eng Phys 2002, 22:679–684. CrossRef
- Massa B, Roccella S, Carrozza MC, Dario P: Design and development of an underactuated prosthetic hand. Proc IEEE Intl Conf on Robotics and Automation 2002, 4:3374–3379.
- Pons JL, Rocon E, Ceres R, Reynaerts D, Saro B, Levin S, Van Moorleghem W: The MANUS-HAND dexterous robotic upper limb prosthesis: mechanical and manipulation aspects. Autonomous Robots 2004, 16:143–163. CrossRef
- Shulz S, Pylatiuk C, Reischl M, Martin L, Mikut R, Bretthauer G: A hydraulically driven multifunctional prosthetic hand. Robotica 2005, 23:293–299. CrossRef
- Cipriani C, Controzzi M, Carrozza MC: Objectives, criteria and methods for the design of the SmartHand transradial prosthesis. Robotica 2009.
- Potratz J, Yang J, Abdel-Malek K, Peña Pitarch E, Grosland N: A light weight compliant hand mechanism with high degrees of freedom. ASME J Biomech Eng 2005,127(6):934–945. CrossRef
- Nightingale JM: Microprocessor control of an artificial arm. Journal of Microcomputer Applications 1985, 8:167–173. CrossRef
- Tenore VG, Ramos A, Fahmy A, Acharya S, Etienne-Cummings R, Thakor NV: Decoding of individuated finger movements using surface electromyography. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2009,56(5):1427–1434. CrossRef
- Jiang N, Englehart KB, Parker PA: Extracting simultaneous and proportional neural control information for multiple-DOF prostheses from the surface electromyographic signal. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2009,56(4):1070–1080. CrossRef
- Cipriani C, Zaccone F, Micera S, Carrozza MC: On the shared control of an EMG-controlled prosthetic hand: analysis of user-prosthesis interaction. IEEE Trans Robotics 2008,24(1):170–184. CrossRef
- Farry KA, Walker ID, Baraniuk RG: Myoelectric teleoperation of a complex robotic hand. IEEE Trans Rob Aut 1996, 12:775–788. CrossRef
- Macpherson JM: How flexible are muscle synergies? In Motor control: concepts and issues. Edited by: Humphrey DR, Freund H-J. Chichester, UK: Wiley; 1991:33–47.
- Torres Oviedo G, Ting LH: Muscle synergies characterizing human postural responses. J Neurophysiol 2007, 98:2144–2156. CrossRef
- Santello M, Flanders M, Soechting JF: Postural hand synergies for tool use. J Neurosci 1998,18(23):10105–10115.
- Santello M, Soechting JF: Matching object size by controlling finger span and hand shape. Somatosen Moto Res 1997,14(3):203–212. CrossRef
- Mason CR, Gomez JE, Ebner TJ: Hand synergies during reach-to-grasp. J Neurophys 2001,86(6):2896–2910.
- Braido P, Zhang X: Quantitative analysis of finger motion coordination in hand manipulative and gestic acts. Hum Mov Sci 2004,22(6):661–678. CrossRef
- Todorov E, Ghahramani Z: Analysis of the synergies underlying complex hand manipulation. Proc IEEE-EMBS Intl Conf 2004, 4637–4640.
- Brown CY, Asada H: Inter-finger coordination and postural synergies in robot hand via mechanical implementation of principal components analysis. Proc IEEE/RJS Intl Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems 2007, 2877–2882.
- Ciocarlie MT, Clanton ST, Spalding MC, Allen PK: Biomimetic grasp planning for cortical control of a robotic hand. Proc IEEE/RJS Intl Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems 2008, 2271–2276.
- Ciocarlie M, Goldfeder C, Allen P: Dimensionality reduction for hand-independent dexterous robotic grasping. Proc IEEE/RJS Intl Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems 2007, 3270–3275.
- Ciocarlie MT, Allen PK: Hand posture subspaces for dexterous robotic grasping. Int J Robot Res 2009,28(7):851–867. CrossRef
- Tsoli A, Jenkins OC: Robot grasping for prosthetic applications. Proc Intl Symposium of Robotic Research 2007.
- Butterfass J, Grebenstein M, Liu H, Hirzinger G: DLR-Hand II: next generation of a dextrous robot hand. Proc IEEE Intl Conf on Robotics and Automation 2001, 109–114.
- Tsoli A, Jenkins OC: 2D subspaces for user-driven robot grasping. Robotics, Science and Systems Conference: Workshop on Robot Manipulation 2007.
- Rosell J, Suárez R, Rosales C, García JA, Pérez A: Motion planning for high dof anthropomorphic hands. Proc IEEE Intl Conf on Robotics and Automation 2009, 4025–4030.
- "Schunk anthropomorphic hand" 2006. Schunk GmbH & Co. KG [http://www.schunk.com/]
- Magenes G, Passaglia F, Secco EL: A new approach of multi-d.o.f. prosthetic control. Proc IEEE-EMBS Intl Conf 2008, 3443–3446.
- Matrone G, Cipriani C, Secco EL, Carrozza MC, Magenes G: Bio-inspired controller for a dexterous prosthetic hand based on principal components analysis. Proc IEEE-EMBS Intl Conf 2009, 5022–5025.
- Hirose S: Connected differential mechanism and its applications. Proc Intl Conf on Advanced Robotics 1985, 319–326.
- Iberall T, Arbib MA: Schemas for the control of hand movements: an essay on cortical localization. In Vision and Action: The Control of Grasping. Edited by: Goodale MA. Norwood, NJ: Ablex; 1990:163–180.
- Kamper DG, Cruz EG, Siegel MP: Stereotypical fingertip trajectories during grasp. J Neurophys 2003, 90:3702–3710. CrossRef
- Fujiki R, Arita D, Taniguchi R: Real-time 3D hand shape estimation based on inverse kinematics and physical constraints. In Proc ICIAP. Volume 3617. Springer LNCS; 2005:850–858.
- Cipriani C, Zaccone F, Stellin G, Beccai L, Cappiello G, Carrozza MC, Dario P: Closed loop controller for a bio-inspired multi-fingered underactuated prosthesis. Proc IEEE Intl Conf on Robotics and Automation 2006, 2111–2113.
- Pearson K: On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space. Phil Mag 1901, 2:559–572.
- Sollerman C, Ejeskär A: Sollerman hand function test. A standardised method and its use in tetraplegic patients. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 1995,29(2):167–176. CrossRef
- Bicchi A: On the closure properties of robotic grasping. Int J Robot Res 1995,14(4):319–334. CrossRef
- Cutkosky MR: On grasp choice, grasp models, and the design of hands for manufacturing tasks. IEEE Trans Rob Aut 1989,5(3):269–279. CrossRef
- Birglen L, Gosselin C: Kinetostatic analisys of underactuated fingers. Proc IEEE Intl Conf on Robotics and Automation 2004, 211–221.
- Principal components analysis based control of a multi-dof underactuated prosthetic hand
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation
- Online Date
- April 2010
- Online ISSN
- BioMed Central
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Computer Engineering and Systems Science, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia, Italy
- 2. ARTS Lab, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, V.le Piaggio 34, 56025, Pontedera (PI), Italy
- 3. EUCENTRE Foundation, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia, Italy