Transplantation Research

, 1:12

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Mesenchymal stem cell-educated macrophages

  • Elke EggenhoferAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University Medical Center of Regensburg Email author 
  • , Martin J HoogduijnAffiliated withDepartment of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) mediate their immunosuppressive effects via a variety of mechanisms. One of these mechanisms involves the induction of macrophages with immunomodulatory capacities. This effect of MSC may be exploited when MSC are used as a cell therapeutic product. Furthermore, MSC are resident in tissues where they may locally target infiltrating macrophages to adapt more regulatory properties. The present review discusses the interaction between MSC and macrophages, the induction of MSC-educated macrophages, how these cells position between other immune regulatory cells, and how they may be used in the clinic.