Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) in southwestern Pacific countries, with a first report from the Kingdom of Tonga
Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus is currently one of the most notorious globally invasive mosquito species. Its medical importance is well documented, and its fast expansion throughout most continents is being monitored with concern. It is generally assumed that its expansion through the Western Pacific island countries has not progressed since its establishment in Fiji in 1989. However, the current status of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region is largely unknown.
According to data from the literature and our own observations, Ae. albopictus is currently present in the following countries of the southern Pacific region: Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and the Kingdom of Tonga, where it was first detected in July 2011. It is absent from New Caledonia and French Polynesia where routine entomological surveillance is carried out, and was not detected during entomological work in 2007, either on the Cook Islands or on the Wallis and Futuna Islands. The species was not reported from American Samoa in 2004, but it is mentioned as probably present in Vanuatu. This is the first report of Ae. albopictus in Tonga.
The introduction and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Tonga was expected due to the geographical proximity of this country to Fiji where the species is strongly established. The pathway of introduction is unknown. The expansion of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region poses an increasing threat to public health given the role this mosquito plays as primary vector of emerging infectious diseases such as Chikungunya fever.
- Benedict MQ, Levine RS, Hawley WA, Lounibos LP: Spread of the tiger: global risk of invasion by the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2007, 7:76–85. CrossRef
- Kuno G: Research on dengue and dengue-like illness in East Asia and the Western Pacific during the First Half of the 20th century. Rev Med Virol 2007, 17:327–341. CrossRef
- Effler PV, Pang L, Kitsutani P, Vorndam V, Nakata M, Ayers T, Elm J, Tom T, Reiter P, Rigau-Perez JG, et al.: Dengue fever, Hawaii, 2001–2002. Emerg Infect Dis 2005, 11:742–749.
- Michault A: Insularite et risques epidemiques a La Reunion. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 1998, 91:52–55.
- Pierre V, Thiria J, Rachou E, Lassalle C, Sissoko D, Renault P: Dengue fever outbreak in La Réunion Island in 2004. In Poster International congress “Medicine and health in the tropics”. Edited by: Pierre V, Thiria J, Rachou E, Lassalle C, Sissoko D, Renault P. International Water Association Publishing, Marseille; 2006.
- Reiter P, Fontenille D, Paupy C: Aedes albopictus as an epidemic vector of chikungunya virus: another emerging problem? Lancet Infect Dis 2006, 6:463–464. CrossRef
- Angelini P, Macini P, Finarelli AC, Pol C, Venturelli C, Bellini R, Dottori M: Chikungunya epidemic outbreak in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) during summer 2007. Parassitologia 2008, 50:97–98.
- Grandadam M, Caro V, Plumet S, Thiberge JM, Souares Y, Failloux AB, Tolou HJ, Budelot M, Cosserat D, Leparc-Goffart I, Despres P: Chikungunya virus, southeastern France. Emerg Infect Dis 2011, 17:910–913. CrossRef
- Paupy C, Ollomo B, Kamgang B, Moutailler S, Rousset D, Demanou M, Herve JP, Leroy E, Simard F: Comparative role of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the emergence of Dengue and Chikungunya in central Africa. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2010, 10:259–266. CrossRef
- Medlock JM, Hansford KM, Schaffner F, Versteirt V, Hendrickx G, Zeller H, Bortel WV: A review of the invasive mosquitoes in europe: ecology, public health risks, and control options. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2012, 12:435–447. CrossRef
- Paupy C, Delatte H, Bagny L, Corbel V, Fontenille D: Aedes albopictus, an arbovirus vector: from the darkness to the light. Microbes Infect 2009, 11:1177–1185. CrossRef
- Cancrini G, Frangipane Di Regalbono A, Ricci I, Tessarin C, Gabrielli S, Pietrobelli M: Aedes albopictus is a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis in Italy. Vet Parasitol 2003, 118:195–202. CrossRef
- Rosen L, Rozeboom LE, Reeves WC, Saugrain J, Gubler DJ: A field trial of competitive displacement of Aedes polynesiensis by Aedes albopictus on a Pacific atoll. AmJTrop Med Hyg 1976, 25:906–913.
- Duffy MR, Chen TH, Hancock WT, Powers AM, Kool JL, Lanciotti RS, Pretrick M, Marfel M, Holzbauer S, Dubray C, et al.: Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia. N Engl J Med 2009, 360:2536–2543. CrossRef
- Belkin JN: The mosquitoes of the South Pacific. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles; 1962.
- Cooper RD, Waterson DGE, Kupo M, Sweeney AW: Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea and the Threat of its Introduction to Australia. J Austent Soc 1994, 33:115–116. CrossRef
- Elliott SA: Aedes albopictus in the Solomon and Santa Cruz Islands, South Pacific. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1980, 74:747–748. CrossRef
- Laille M, Fauran P, Rodhain F: The presence of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in the Fiji Islands. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 1990, 83:394–398.
- Knudsen AB: Global distribution and continuing spread of Aedes albopictus. Parassitologia 1995, 37:91–97.
- Ritchie SA, Long S, Hart A, Webb CE, Russell RC: An adulticidal sticky ovitrap for sampling container-breeding mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2003, 19:235–242.
- Lambdin BH, Schmaedick MA, McClintock S, Roberts J, Gurr NE, Marcos K, Waller L, Burkot TR: Dry season production of filariasis and dengue vectors in American Samoa and comparison with wet season production. AmJTrop Med Hyg 2009, 81:1013–1019. CrossRef
- Huang YM, Hitchcock JC: A revision of the Aedes Scutellaris group of Tonga (Diptera, Culicidae). Contributions of the American EntomoIogicaI Institute 1980, 17:1–107.
- Ramalingam S: An Annotated Checklist and Keys to the Mosquitoes of Samoa and Tonga. Mosquito Systematcs 1976, 8:298–318.
- Wenk CE, Kaufmann C, Schaffner F, Mathis A: Molecular characterization of Swiss Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) and evaluation of real-time PCR assays for the identification of Culicoides biting midges. Vet Parasitol 2012, 184:258–266. CrossRef
- Harding JS, Brown C, Jones F, Taylor R: Distribution and habitats of mosquito larvae in the Kingdom of Tonga. Australian Journal of Entomology 2007, 46:332–338. CrossRef
- Rueda LM: Pictorial keys for the identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) associated with Dengue Virus Transmission. Zootaxa 2004, 589:33–41.
- Alibert A, Pfannstiel A, Grangeon JP: Chikungunya outbreak in New Caledonia in 2011, Status report as at 22 August 2011. Inform'Action 2011, 34:3–9.
- Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) in southwestern Pacific countries, with a first report from the Kingdom of Tonga
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Parasites & Vectors
- Online Date
- November 2012
- Online ISSN
- BioMed Central
- Additional Links
- Aedes albopictus
- Pacific islands
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Institut Pasteur de Nouvelle Calédonie, Association Pasteur International Network, Nouvelle-caledonie, 9–11 Avenue Paul Doumer, Noumea, BP 61, 98845, New Caledonia
- 2. Ministry of Health, Nuku’alofa, Kingdom of Tonga
- 3. Retired WHO Technical Officer, Tontouta, New Caledonia
- 4. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Suva, Fiji
- 5. Institut Louis Malardé, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia
- 6. Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland