Validated TLC-densitometry method for the simultaneous analysis of pyrethroid insecticides in agricultural and domestic products
Pyrethroids are widely used for the control of pests and insects, as pyrethroids are believed to pose little risk to human health and environment. However, exposure to the pyrethroids exceeding the label directions might adversely affect human health and environment. Hence a careful selection of environment friendly household product is required that must contain exactly the label claimed pyrethroids amount.
A sensitive and robust TLC-densitometric method for simultaneous quantification of commonly used synthetic pyrethroids including esbiothrin, alpha-cypermethrin and cis/trans permethrin in agricultural and domestic products has been developed and validated. TLC aluminum sheets, precoated with 0.2 mm thick layer of silica gel 60 F-254, were used for chromatographic process. Densitometric analysis of chromatoplates was carried out in absorbance mode at corresponding λmax of each pyrethroid. Equally valid common mobile phase for all pyrethroids consisted of hexane-dichloromethane-ethylacetate-formic acid (8:1.5:0.4:0.1 v/v/v/v) which provided sharp and symmetrical peaks of esbiothrin, alpha-cypermethrin, trans-permethrin and cis-permethrin, at R f 0.31, 0.53, 0.6 and 0.65, respectively. Linear regression data for respective calibration curves showed a good linearity for all pyrethroids with r = 0.991-0.996. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for all pyrethroids were found in the range of 1.6-2.8 and 4.9-8.5 ng/spot, respectively.
The developed method is applicable for separating the mixture of pyrethroids and at the same time, it is also valid for separating their isomers. The method is reproducible, precise and accurate for the quantitative determination of pyrethroids in agricultural and domestic products.
- Gosselin, RE, Smith, RP, Hodge, HC (1984) Clinical toxicology of commercial products. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore MD
- Prallethrin (WHO specification and evaluation for public health pesticides). World Health Organization, Geneva
- Das, NG, Baruah, I, Talukdar, PK, Das, SC (2003) Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes. J Vector Borne Dis 40: pp. 49-53
- Roberts, TR, Hutson, DH (1999) Metabolic pathways of agrochemicals. Part 2. Insecticides and fungicides. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cornwall, UK
- Brander, SM, Werner, I, White, JW, Deanovic, LA (2009) Toxicity of a dissolved pyrethroid mixture to Hyalella Azteca at environmentally relevant concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 28: pp. 1493-1499 CrossRef
- He, F, Sun, J, Han, K, Wu, Y, Yao, P, Wang, S, Liu, L (1988) Effects of pyrethroid insecticides on subjects engaged in packaging pyrethroids. Brit J Ind Med 45: pp. 548-551
- Hallenbeck, WH, Cunningham-Burns, KM (1985) Pesticides and human health. Springer, New York CrossRef
- Go, V, Garey, J, Wolff, MS, Pogo, BG (1999) Estrogenic potential of certain pyrethroid compounds in the MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line. Environ Health Persp 107: pp. 173-177 CrossRef
- Repetto, RC, Baliga, SS (1996) Pesticides and immune system: the public health risks. WRI (World Resource Institute), National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy, Washington, DC
- Demicco, A, Cooper, KR, Richardson, JR, White, LA (2009) Developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides in zebrafish embryos. Toxicol Sci 113: pp. 177-186 CrossRef
- Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids.
- Werner, I, Deanovic, LA, Hinton, DE, Henderson, JD, de Oliveira, GH, Wilson, BW, Krueger, W, Wallender, WW, Oliver, MN, Zalom, FG (2002) Toxicity of stormwater runoff after dormant spray application of diazinon and esfenvalerate (Asana) in French prune orchard, Glenn County, California, USA. B Environ Contam Tox 68: pp. 29-36
- Weston, DP, You, J, Lydy, MJ (2004) Distribution and toxicity of sediment-associated pesticides in agriculture-dominated water bodies of California’s Central Valley. Environ Sci Technol 38: pp. 2752-2759 CrossRef
- Insecticide market trends and potential water quality implications. TDC environmental report, San Francisco Estuary project.
- Manadas, R, Veiga, F, Sousa, JJ, Pina, ME (1999) Development and validation of an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of cis- and trans-permethrin and piperonyl butoxide in pharmaceutical dosage forms. J Liq Chromatogr R T 22: pp. 1867-1876 CrossRef
- Ye, J, Wu, J, Liu, W (2009) Enantioselective separation and analysis of chiral pesticides by high-performance liquid chromatography. TrAC-Trend Anal Chem 28: pp. 1148-1163 CrossRef
- Shishovska, M, Trajkovska, V (2010) HPLC-Method for determination of permethrin enantiomers using chiral b-cyclodextrin-based stationary phase. Chirality 22: pp. 527-533
- Yang, GS, Vazquez, PP, Frenich, AG, Vidal, JLM, Aboul-Enein, HY (2004) Separation and simultaneous determination of enantiomers of tau-fluvalinate and permethrin in drinking water. Chromatographia 60: pp. 523-526 CrossRef
- Mekebri, A, Crane, DB, Blondina, GJ, Oros, DR, Rocca, JL (2008) Extraction and analysis methods for the determination of pyrethroid insecticides in surface water, sediments and biological tissues at environmentally relevant concentrations. B Environ Contam Tox 80: pp. 455-460 CrossRef
- Pinheiro, AS, de Andradea, JB (2009) Development, validation and application of a SDME/GC-FID methodology for the multiresidue determination of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in water. Talanta 79: pp. 1354-1359 CrossRef
- Wang, D, Weston, DP, Lydy, MJ (2009) Method development for the analysis of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides at low parts per trillion levels in water. Talanta 78: pp. 1345-1351 CrossRef
- Ramesh, A, Ravi, PE (2004) Negative ion chemical ionization-gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of residues of different pyrethroid insecticides in whole blood and serum. J Anal Toxicol 28: pp. 660-666
- Feo, ML, Eljarrat, E, Barcelo, D (2011) Performance of gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in the analysis of pyrethroid insecticides in environmental and food samples. Rapid Commun Mass Sp 25: pp. 869-876 CrossRef
- Li, HP, Lina, CH, Jen, JF (2009) Analysis of aqueous pyrethroid residuals by one-step microwave-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Talanta 79: pp. 466-471 CrossRef
- Feo, ML, Eljarrat, E, Barcelo, D (2010) A rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of 14 pyrethroids in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1217: pp. 2248-2253 CrossRef
- Q2A validation of analytical procedure: methodology. Proceedings of the International Conference on Harmonization.
- Q2B validation of analytical procedure: methodology. Proceedings of the International Conference on Harmonization.
- Liu, J, Row, KH (2010) Separation of esbiothrin and D-acetylene C permethrin in electric-mosquito coils by gas chromatography. Korean J Chem Eng 27: pp. 228-230 CrossRef
- Acikkol, M, Semen, S, Turkmen, Z, Mercan, S (2012) Derermination of α-cypermethrin from soil by using HPTLC. JPC – J Planar Chromatogr – Mod TLC 25: pp. 48-53 CrossRef
- Validated TLC-densitometry method for the simultaneous analysis of pyrethroid insecticides in agricultural and domestic products
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Chemistry Central Journal
- Online Date
- August 2012
- Online ISSN
- Chemistry Central
- Additional Links
- Pyrethroid insecticides
- Agricultural and domestic products
- Author Affiliations
- 1. H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan
- 2. Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University (B.Z.U.), Multan, 60800, Pakistan