June 2012, 9:30,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 26 Jun 2012
A sportomics strategy to analyze the ability of arginine to modulate both ammonia and lymphocyte levels in blood after high-intensity exercise
Exercise is an excellent tool to study the interactions between metabolic stress and the immune system. Specifically, high-intensity exercises both produce transient hyperammonemia and influence the distribution of white blood cells. Carbohydrates and glutamine and arginine supplementation were previously shown to effectively modulate ammonia levels during exercise. In this study, we used a short-duration, high-intensity exercise together with a low carbohydrate diet to induce a hyperammonemia state and better understand how arginine influences both ammonemia and the distribution of leukocytes in the blood.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioners (men, n = 39) volunteered for this study. The subjects followed a low-carbohydrate diet for four days before the trials and received either arginine supplementation (100 mg·kg-1 of body mass·day-1) or a placebo. The intergroup statistical significance was calculated by a one-way analysis of variance, followed by Student’s t-test. The data correlations were calculated using Pearson’s test.
In the control group, ammonemia increased during matches at almost twice the rate of the arginine group (25 mmol·L-1·min-1 and 13 μmol·L-1·min-1, respectively). Exercise induced an increase in leukocytes of approximately 75%. An even greater difference was observed in the lymphocyte count, which increased 2.2-fold in the control group; this increase was partially prevented by arginine supplementation. The shape of the ammonemia curve suggests that arginine helps prevent increases in ammonia levels.
These data indicate that increases in lymphocytes and ammonia are simultaneously reduced by arginine supplementation. We propose that increased serum lymphocytes could be related to changes in ammonemia and ammonia metabolism.
Bassini-Cameron A, Sweet E, Bottino A, Bittar C, Veiga C, Cameron LC: Effect of caffeine supplementation on haematological and biochemical variables in elite soccer players under physical stress conditions. Br J Sports Med 2007,4(8):523–530.CrossRef
Pedersen BK, Hoffman-Goetz L: Exercise and the immune system: regulation, integration, and adaptation. Physiol Rev 2000,80(3):1055–1081.PubMed
van Eeden SF, Granton J, Hards JM, Moore B, Hogg JC: Expression of the cell adhesion molecules on leukocytes that demarginate during acute maximal exercise. J Appl Physiol 1999,86(3):970–976.PubMed
Simonson SR, Jackson CG: Leukocytosis occurs in response to resistance exercise in men. J Strength Cond Res 2004,18(2):266–271.PubMed
Prado ES, de Rezende Neto JM, de Almeida RD, Dória de Melo MG, Cameron LC: Keto analogue and amino acid supplementation affects the ammonaemia response during exercise under ketogenic conditions. Br J Nutr 2011 Feb, 16:1–5.
Morris SM: Arginine: beyond protein. Am J Clin Nutr 2006,83(Suppl 2):508–512.
Field CJ, Johnson I, Pratt VC: Glutamine and arginine: immunonutrients for improved health. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000,32(Suppl 7):377–388.
Tur-Marí J, Sureda A, Pons A: Blood cells as functional markers of antioxidant vitamin status. Br J Nutr 2006,96(Suppl 1):38–41.CrossRef
Resende NM, Magalhães-Neto AM, Bachini F, de Castro LEV, Bassini A, Cameron LC: Metabolic changes during a field experiment in a world-class windsurfing athlete: a trial with multivariate analyses. OMICS: A journal of integrative biology 2011,15(10):695–704.CrossRef
Cameron LC: Mass spectrometry imaging: facts and perspectives from a non-mass spectrometrist point of view. Methods 2012. in press
Ohtani M, Sugita M, Maruyama K: Amino acid mixture improves training efficiency in athletes. J Nutr 2006,136(Suppl 2):538–543.
McConell GK, Canny BJ, Daddo MC, Nance MJ, Snow RJ: Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on glucose kinetics and muscle metabolism during intense endurance exercise. J Appl Physiol 2000,89(5):1690–1698.PubMed
Nieman DC: Exercise, infection, and immunity. Int J Sports Med 1994,15(Suppl 3):131–141.CrossRef
Boyum A, Ronsen O, Tennfjord VA, Tollefsen S, Haugen AH, Opstad PK, Bahr R: Chemiluminescence response of granulocytes from elite athletes during recovery from one or two intense bouts of exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2002,88(1–2):20–28.PubMed
Carlson LA, Headley S, DeBruin J, Tuckow AT, Koch AJ, Kenefick RW: Carbohydrate supplementation and immune responses after acute exhaustive resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2008,18(3):247–259.PubMed
Garg SK, Banerjee R, Kipnis J: Neuroprotective immunity: T cell-derived glutamate endows astrocytes with a neuroprotective phenotype. J Immunol 2008,180(6):3866–3873.PubMed
- A sportomics strategy to analyze the ability of arginine to modulate both ammonia and lymphocyte levels in blood after high-intensity exercise
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
- Online Date
- June 2012
- Online ISSN
- BioMed Central
- Additional Links
- White blood cells
- Amino acids
- Immune response
- Short-duration exercise
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins, Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pasteur 296, CEP: 22290-240, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- 2. Institute of Genetics and Biology, Federal University of Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila 2121, CEP: 38408-100, Uberlândia, Brazil
- 3. Laboratory of Biology of Exercise, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho 540, CEP: 21941-599, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- 4. University Castelo Branco, Av. Salvador Allende 6.700, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil