Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles
Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1) on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.
Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20) and Rg1 (N = 20) groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats.
Exhaustive exercise significantly (p<0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation of control group, as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The increased oxidative stress after exercise was also confirmed by decreased reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio) in control rats. However, these changes were completely eliminated in Rg1 group. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Rg1 in non-exercise rats, while no significant change after exercise. Nevertheless, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased after exercise in Rg1 group.
This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.
- Ji LL: Free radicals and exercise: implication in health and fitness. J Exerc Sci Fit 2003, 1:15–22.
- Powers SK, Jackson MJ: Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiol Rev 2008, 88:1243–1276. CrossRef
- Radak Z, Chung HY, Goto S: Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise. Free Radical Biol Med 2008, 44:153–159. CrossRef
- Huang CC, Lin TJ, Lu YF, Chen CC, Huang CY, Lin WT: Protective effects of L-arginine supplementation against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in young rat tissues. Chin J Physiol 2009, 52:306–315. CrossRef
- Lin WT, Yang SC, Tsai SC, Huang CC, Lee NY: L-arginine attenuates xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase activities in hearts of rats during exhaustive exercise. Br J Nutr 2006, 95:67–75. CrossRef
- Perez AC, de Oliveira AC Cabral, Estevez E, Molina AJ, Prieto JG, Alvarez AI: Mitochondrial, sarcoplasmic membrane integrity and protein degradation in heart and skeletal muscle in exercised rats. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2003, 134:199–206. CrossRef
- Fu Y, Ji LL: Chronic ginseng consumption attenuates age-associated oxidative stress in rats. J Nutr 2003, 133:3603.
- Kim TH, Lee SM: The effects of ginseng total saponin, panaxadiol and panaxatriol on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. Food Chem Toxicol 2010, 48:1516–1520. CrossRef
- Liu ZQ, Luo XY, Sun YX, Chen YP, Wang ZC: Can ginsenosides protect human erythrocytes against free-radical-induced hemolysis? Biochim Biophys Acta 2002, 1572:58–66. CrossRef
- Ng W, Yang M: Effects of ginsenosides Re and Rg3 on intracellular redox state and cell proliferation in C6 glioma cells. Chin Med 2008, 3:8. CrossRef
- Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V: Variable effects of american ginseng: a batch of american ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) with a depressed ginsenoside profile does not affect postprandial glycemia. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003, 57:243–248. CrossRef
- Um JY, Chung HS, Kim MS, Na HJ, Kwon HJ, Kim JJ, Lee KM, Lee SJ, Lim JP, Do KR: Molecular authentication of Panax ginseng species by rapd analysis and PCR-RFLP. Biol Pharm Bull 2001, 24:872–875. CrossRef
- Chen CF, Chiou WF, Zhang JT: Comparison of the pharmacological effects of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2008, 29:1103–1108. CrossRef
- Chen XC, Zhu YG, Zhu LA, Huang C, Chen Y, Chen LM, Fang F, Zhou YC, Zhao CH: Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates dopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by suppressing oxidative stress. Eur J Pharmacol 2003, 473:1–7. CrossRef
- Zhu D, Wu L, Li CR, Wang XW, Ma YJ, Zhong ZY, Zhao HB, Cui J, Xun SF, Huang XL: Ginsenoside Rg1 protects rat cardiomyocyte from hypoxia/reoxygenation oxidative injury via antioxidant and intracellular calcium homeostasis. J Cell Biochem 2009, 108:117–124. CrossRef
- Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K: Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979, 95:351–358. CrossRef
- Oliveira AC, Perez AC, Prieto JG, Duarte IDG, Alvarez AI: Protection of Panax ginseng in injured muscles after eccentric exercise. J Ethnopharmacol 2005, 97:211–214. CrossRef
- Deng HL, Zhang JT: Anti-lipid peroxilative effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1. Chin Med J (Engl) 1991, 104:395–398.
- Hudson MB, Hosick PA, McCaulley GO, Schrieber L, Wrieden J, McAnulty SR, Triplett NT, McBride JM, Quindry JC: The effect of resistance exercise on humoral markers of oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008, 40:542–548. CrossRef
- Verhaeghe J, van Bree R, Van Herck E: Oxidative stress after antenatal betamethasone: acute downregulation of glutathione peroxidase-3. Early Hum Dev 2009, 85:767–771. CrossRef
- Dohm GL, Kasperek GJ, Tapscott EB, Beecher GR: Effect of exercise on synthesis and degradation of muscle protein. Biochem J 1980, 188:255–262.
- Chen CJ, Brown-Borg HM, Rakoczy SG, Ferrington DA, Thompson LDV: Aging impairs the expression of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase in soleus muscle under stress. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2010, 65:129–137. CrossRef
- Park SH, Jang JH, Chen CY, Na HK, Surh YJ: A formulated red ginseng extract rescues PC12 cells from pcb-induced oxidative cell death through NRF2-mediated upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate cysteine ligase. Toxicology 2010, 278:131–139. CrossRef
- Kwok HH, Ng WY, Yang MSM, Mak NK, Wong RNS, Yue PYK: The ginsenoside protopanaxatriol protects endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury and cell death by modulating intracellular redox status. Free Radical Biol Med 2010, 48:437–445. CrossRef
- Malaguti M, Angeloni C, Garatachea N, Baldini M, Leoncini E, Collado PS, Teti G, Falconi M, Gonzalez-Gallego J, Hrelia S: Sulforaphane treatment protects skeletal muscle against damage induced by exhaustive exercise in rats. J Appl Physiol 2009, 107:1028–1036. CrossRef
- Saborido A, Naudí A, Portero-Otín M, Pamplona R, Megías A: Stanozolol treatment decreases the mitochondrial ROS generation and oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 2011, 110:661–669. CrossRef
- You Y, Kim K, Yoon HG, Lee KW, Lee J, Chun J, Shin DH, Park J, Jun W: Chronic effect of ferulic acid from Pseudosasa japonica leaves on enhancing exercise activity in mice. Phytother Res 2010, 24:1508–1513. CrossRef
- Caillaud C, Py G, Eydoux N, Legros P, Prefaut C, Mercier J: Antioxidants and mitochondrial respiration in lung, diaphragm, and locomotor muscles: effect of exercise. Free Radical Biol Med 1999, 26:1292–1299. CrossRef
- Oh-ishi S, Kizaki T, Ookawara T, Sakurai T, Izawa T, Nagata N, Ohno H: Endurance training improves the resistance of rat diaphragm to exercise-induced oxidative stress. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997, 156:1579–1585.
- Terblanche SE: The effects of exhaustive exercise on the activity levels of catalase in various tissues of male and female rats. Cell Biol Int 1999, 23:749–753. CrossRef
- Taysi S, Oztasan N, Efe H, Polat MF, Gumustekin K, Siktar E, Canakci E, Akcay F, Dane S, Gul M: Endurance training attenuates the oxidative stress due to acute exhaustive exercise in rat liver. Acta Physiol Hung 2008, 95:337–347. CrossRef
- Geng JW, Peng W, Huang YG, Fan H, Li SD: Ginsenoside-Rg1 from Panax notoginseng prevents hepatic fibrosis induced by thioacetamide in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2010, 634:162–169. CrossRef
- Voces J, Alvarez AI, Vila L, Ferrando A, Cabral de Oliveira C, Prieto JG: Effects of administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on hepatic antioxidant function after exhaustive exercise. Comp Biochem Physiol Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 1999, 123:175–184. CrossRef
- Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
- Online Date
- May 2012
- Online ISSN
- BioMed Central
- Additional Links
- Antioxidant status
- Lipid peroxidation
- Protein carbonyl
- Oxidative damage
- Free radical attack
- Sports nutrition
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei City, Taiwan
- 2. Department of Food Science, Nutrition, and Nutraceutical Biotechnology, Shih-Chien University, Taipei City, 10462, Taiwan
- 3. Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
- 4. Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
- 7. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
- 8. Department of Nursing, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
- 5. Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
- 6. Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan